There are tools that can help, including CrowdTangle, the Facebook Graph API, and the Twitter API, but WhatsApp is meant to be a black box. Sites like Seesmic and 12seconds combine the brevity of services like Twitter with video and audio, allowing for ongoing conversations and interaction on a level above and beyond what YouTube can allow for. In the aftermath of the Cambridge Analytica scandal, it has become harder to gain insight into what’s happening on Facebook and Twitter. Versions of the speech also appeared, without attribution, in comments on other websites, including Facebook and YouTube. Over the past twelve months, referendums in Nigeria and Brazil have been referred to as “WhatsApp elections,” with postmortem analysis suggesting that the app is rife with manipulative political messages, including disinformation. We started by crawling the open web for public invite links, an approach adopted by researchers who have conducted similar research in Brazil.
Given how WhatsApp was used during the elections in Brazil and Nigeria, many predicted it would become a key battleground between warring political parties in India in the lead-up to the 2019 general election. The 2019 Indian general election was called the”first WhatsApp election” in India. At the Tow Center for Digital Journalism, we used the Indian election cycle, which ran between April 11 and May 19, 2019, as a case study for assessing both general political discourse and information manipulation on WhatsApp. Notably, the most activity did not occur during the election cycle or in the run-up to it, but on May 23, 2019, the day the election results were announced. From our dataset, a video called “Police Brutality” was intended to stoke outrage about India’s policing, and prompted 141 shares across 111 of our groups, mostly in the second week of May. The video in our dataset that was shared the most widely showed a woman sitting in front of a Pakistani flag, desecrating the Indian flag. The Hindi version of NDTV, an Indian television media company, received the most links-just over 700. None of India’s other national news outlets had more than 300 links.
Editor’s note: This is the first piece in a series about monitoring political communications during the 2019 Indian elections on WhatsApp, a closed messaging network that’s difficult for researchers and journalists to enter. The incident in Korea revolves around a number of paid chat rooms on encrypted messaging app Telegram known as “nth rooms.” The primary suspect, a 24-year-old male surnamed Cho, allegedly operated the chat sexy live rooms and lured women, some underage, through fake job ads to persuade them to send him sexual photos of themselves. He’s had a terrible time finding and holding a job. In a handful of instances, users had forwarded the same message to ten or more groups at a given time (presumably by hitting “Forward” on the original message multiple times). Ten days later, message activity peaked again. For one, users can only forward a message to five people or groups at once. Sex cam sites have become a popular option for people who enjoy streaming adult content.
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