Comparison and evaluation of 18 grocery shopping apps: who is the most affordable and rich in categories?

Comparison and evaluation of 18 grocery shopping apps: who is the most affordable and rich in categories?

During the epidemic, all the young and old are staying at home, and stockpiling food is a problem.

Since the grocery shopping app, even many post-60s and 1970s-born people who have always liked to visit the vegetable market have mastered new skills in online grocery shopping. After downloading a bunch of grocery shopping apps and switching back and forth among various fresh food e-commerce companies, “cloud grocery shopping” has to rely on “grabbing”. In extraordinary times, the grocery shopping app is like a real-life QQ farm.

Which grocery shopping app has the most variety of fresh products and the most affordable prices? Is it the most time-saving, labor-saving and worry-free way to place an order for grocery shopping?

In February 2020, “Consumer Reports” subjectively evaluated 18 grocery shopping apps, including traditional fresh food e-commerce (Tmall Supermarket, Suning.com), vertical fresh food e-commerce (Daily Youxian, Original Life, SF Express). Youyi, Meicai Mall), platform fresh food e-commerce (JD Daojia, Ele.me, Meituan), offline fresh food e-commerce (Carrefour, Yonghui Life, Auchan Daojia, RT-Mart, China Resources Vanguard, Walmart, Sam’s Club) , Hema Xiansheng, Aeon Daojia), subjectively evaluate their fresh food types, distribution services, commodity prices, after-sales methods, etc.

The evaluation results show that Ben Life, Meicai Mall, Tmall Supermarket, and Hema Fresh have more varieties of fresh food, while Suning.com and Aeon Daojia have a higher out-of-stock rate.

Freshippo, Suning.com, JD Daojia, and Carrefour have lower basic shipping costs, while SF Express, Original Life, and Sam’s Club have higher basic shipping costs.

In terms of price, Daily Youxian and Meicai Mall are more accessible to the people, while Original Life and SF Express have higher prices. In terms of after-sales services, 18 grocery shopping apps have provided after-sales phone calls, and 16 grocery shopping apps have opened online customer service.

Suning Tesco’s “out of stock” dead end

This publication simulates the daily orders placed by consumers, and sets Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chongqing as the delivery addresses to evaluate the abundance of fresh food sold by the 18 grocery shopping apps.

The evaluation results show that Ben Life and Meicai Mall have the most fresh meat, eggs and aquatic products, with a maximum of 866 kinds. Originally, the main focus of life was regional characteristics, and the origin was straight. Meicai Mall is like turning a traditional offline wholesale market into an online one. The same type of meat can be purchased in “fresh”, “cold fresh”, “frozen fresh” and “frozen”.

Among the fresh vegetables and mushrooms, Alibaba’s brands Hema Fresh and Tmall Supermarket have the most varieties, and the two have a high degree of overlap. Hema has a wide range of fresh and cooked food, and some uncommon vegetables such as andrographis, bitter chrysanthemum, artemisia stalk, beetroot, etc. can be bought. At present, Tmall Supermarket has launched a number of fresh food businesses, such as “one-hour delivery”, “half-day delivery” and “fresh food market”, covering a wide range. Among them, Xianmei Market and Hema Fresh have almost the same variety.

In terms of commodity out-of-stock rate, Suning.com has 75.6%, and the fresh food category has not covered vegetables; AEON Daojia has 68.2%, and currently only supports orders in Guangzhou, Foshan, Shenzhen and other regions.

There are generally differences in the types of fresh food in different cities. For example, most of the vegetables ordered by consumers in Chongqing are “undeliverable”; Wal-Mart has adopted a policy of restricting the purchase of fresh food in some areas.

In addition, in terms of product classification, China Resources Vanguard is relatively chaotic. This magazine found that the seasonal vegetable product classification of “Chongqing Ranjiaba SM Store” has non-seasonal items such as “boneless pig’s hand”, “couple lung slices” and “household daily use combination”. vegetable merchandise.

Among these grocery shopping apps, JD Daojia, Meituan, and Ele.me’s fresh produce mainly depend on different third-party merchants. The ordering mode is similar to ordering takeaway. These merchants generally include Parknshop Yonghui and Guangbai Supermarket. , ole, Sam’s Club, Aunt Qian, Real Kung Fu, China Resources Vanguard, etc.

The shipping fee behind “0 yuan delivery” is uneven

Some of the 18 grocery shopping apps evaluated this time are professional e-commerce platforms, such as JD Daojia and Tmall Supermarket, and some are from supermarket supermarkets, such as Walmart and China Resources Vanguard.

From the perspective of the distribution range, generally achieving “half-hour delivery” requires the support of a nearby site, such as Carrefour, Aeon Daojia, Yonghui Life, Walmart, Auchan Daojia, RT-Mart, China Resources Vanguard, Hema Fresh, etc. Usually covering a range of about 3 kilometers around the store, these grocery shopping apps are suitable for users who often buy groceries in a supermarket.

Although Sam’s Club is one of the physical supermarkets that supports online delivery, it needs to purchase a membership to place an order on the Sam’s Club App. Membership is 260 yuan per year. If you place an order at the “Sam’s Club” self-operated by JD.com at the non-member price, you do not need to purchase a membership, but the choices of fresh products are limited to quick-frozen products.

The delivery fee is based on various considerations such as starting price, basic shipping, packaging, weight shipping, and dynamic shipping. The evaluation results show that Yonghui Life’s delivery fee is the most user-friendly, as long as the actual payment order is over 18 yuan, it can be free of postage.

Most grocery shopping apps do not set a delivery price, and the default delivery starts at 0 yuan. Only Meicai Mall offers free shipping on orders over 100 yuan, and does not involve basic shipping.

Hema Xiansheng, Suning.com, JD Daojia, Carrefour, etc. have a lower basic shipping fee of 5 yuan, and SF Express, Original Life, Sam’s Club, etc. have a higher basic shipping fee of 10 yuan.

In addition, JD Daojia, AEON Daojia, Wal-Mart, and China Resources Vanguard all need to pay for product packaging, generally 0.5 yuan per order. In addition, most grocery shopping apps also have weight shipping fees, etc. Generally, the additional weight of 1kg increases by 0.5~2 yuan.

In terms of delivery timeliness, Maicai apps that have opened city services generally support same-day delivery, while Ben Life, Suning.com, and Meicai Mall offer next-day delivery.

Due to the severe epidemic situation, many grocery shopping apps have launched the “contactless delivery service”, which generally defaults to this service or informs users to pick up food by themselves through channels such as order remarks and telephone communication with riders to reduce direct contact between riders and users.

Meicai Mall, Daily Youxian are the cheapest, Original Life and SF Express have high prices

In the “fighting” in the vegetable market, many consumers have developed the housekeeping skills of shopping around: they can save a piece of money and never spend more than fifty cents.

This magazine uniformly recorded the average prices of 3 mainstream fresh commodities including Chinese cabbage, pork lean meat and eggs in 18 grocery shopping apps. The evaluation results show that it is the most cost-effective to buy Chinese cabbage in the daily excellent fresh, and the price of pork lean meat and eggs in the Meicai mall is the most conscientious.

Among them, the daily premium Chinese cabbage is the daily discount price, which generally requires users to squat to grab it.

Consumers can understand Meicai Mall as a “fresh food wholesale e-commerce”, which is suitable for the catering industry to purchase goods. For example, a product on the platform called “Fresh and High-Quality Small Eggs” has a single price of as low as 0.42 yuan, which can kill all grocery shopping apps in seconds, but the premise is to buy a box of 360 pieces in total.

In contrast, the price of Chinese cabbage and pork lean meat that were originally sold is higher, which may be related to the variety. For example, the price of its “Jingqi Shenshan Black Pig Lean Pork” is as high as 99.9 yuan/400g.

In addition, in some grocery shopping apps, common fresh food such as Chinese cabbage, pork lean meat, and eggs cannot even be searched, including Suning.com, Sam’s Club and SF Express.

In order to evaluate the stability of the price of the Maicai App, this magazine also randomly recorded the price of the same product twice on different dates.

The results showed that the price of the same test item of the 17 grocery shopping apps did not change. On the contrary, the price of a “Hengbi Fresh Pork Lean Meat” (5 catties) in Meicai Mall has risen from 149.95 yuan to 158.5 yuan, indicating that the prices of some commodities on the platform are not stable enough and may fluctuate in the short term.

Meituan, Ele.me customer service online 24 hours a day

For some users, “grabbing vegetables” and “grabbing reservations” in the grocery shopping app every day is like being in a “battlefield”. Behind the mushrooming emergence of grocery shopping apps, more and more e-commerce giants are competing to make efforts. This is another “battlefield”.

In terms of user service, there is a huge customer service demand. As a link to communicate with users, telephone customer service and online customer service are very important.

The evaluation results show that all 18 Maicai apps provide after-sales phone calls, and 16 Maicai apps have opened online customer service.

Among them, China Resources Vanguard and AEON Daojia currently do not have online customer service, which is greatly discounted. On the contrary, the online customer service hours of Meituan and Ele.me are uninterrupted 24 hours a day, which adds a lot to them.

On the other hand, online customer service of other grocery shopping apps generally work from day to night. The online customer service of Meicai Mall is 6:00-24:00, and the service time is up to 18 hours. The online customer service of SF Express is 9:00-20:00, and the service time is 11 hours.

The magazine contacted the online customer service of 16 grocery shopping apps one by one at the same time. Most grocery shopping apps such as Tmall Supermarket, Hema Xiansheng, Ele.me, Meituan, SF Express and other manual customer service channels are smooth and the communication is more efficient. However, Suning.com, Bennian Life and Yonghui Life are more difficult to contact the human customer service. This magazine responded to the “human customer service” in Yonghui Life, showing that it ranked 385th, and it actually took more than 20 minutes to connect to the customer service.

CCR Comprehensive Evaluation: Recommend Meicai Mall and Tmall Supermarket

The CCR comprehensive evaluation results show that Meicai Mall and Tmall Supermarket have the best overall CCR performance, while Aeon Daojia and Suning.com are not ideal as a whole. In addition, Ele.me, Meituan, and JD Daojia rely on settled merchants to provide “dishes”, which are not limited to stores, and placing orders anytime, anywhere is also a highlight.

Meicai Mall has a wide variety of fresh products and affordable prices. Tmall Supermarket covers a wide range and has a complete variety, which is worth recommending.

Aeon’s delivery costs are high, and there is no online customer service for online orders. Suning.com has fewer types of fresh food and the prices are too high.

Some of the more mainstream grocery shopping apps, such as Duodian, Liangxian, and Dingdong grocery shopping, were not included in this evaluation, and may also be a good attempt.

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Samsung Electronics spends another $8 billion to build a chip foundry production line

On May 21, Samsung Electronics announced that it will invest $8 billion in South Korea to build a chip foundry production line to produce high-end processor chips that can be applied to 5G, artificial intelligence and high-speed computing.

According to Korean media reports, Samsung Electronics’ new chip foundry production line will be built in the Pyeongtaek Industrial Park in Gyeonggi-do. The new production line will be dedicated to wafer foundry production for extreme ultraviolet lithography technology. With extreme ultraviolet light technology, Samsung is trying to hit the first throne of the global foundry of system chips.

Some analysts believe that Samsung Electronics’ profits now rely heavily on the chip business, which has been in decline since the end of 2018, as demand from smartphone makers and data service providers has declined, affecting chip sales.

Although the current global epidemic situation is not optimistic, it still cannot prevent Samsung Electronics from vigorously developing its semiconductor business around the world. Samsung Electronics’ memory chip plant in Xi’an, China, will also continue to expand.

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Leaders in the global artificial intelligence field gather in Shanghai today, and Li Qiang looks forward to accelerating the construction of an artificial intelligence “Shanghai Highland” with more international influence

2021 Artificial Intelligence Conference” target=”_blank”> World Artificial Intelligence Conference opened at Shanghai World Expo Center on July 9. The World Artificial Intelligence Conference is organized by the National Development and Reform Commission of China, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China, and the Co-hosted by the Ministry of Technology, the State Internet Information Office, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the China Association for Science and Technology and the Shanghai Municipal People’s Government. Li Qiang, Secretary of the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee, pointed out in his speech at the opening ceremony that it is necessary to thoroughly implement the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important instructions, and more Give full play to the “head goose effect” of artificial intelligence, regard artificial intelligence as an important driving force for comprehensively promoting the digital transformation of cities, take greater steps to build a smart economy, create a smart life, and shape smart governance, and accelerate the construction of a more international influence. The powerful artificial intelligence “Shanghai Highland” strives to become the best testing ground and an important weather vane for the development of artificial intelligence in the world, so that the beautiful picture of the intelligent era can be fully interpreted and vividly displayed in the city of Shanghai.

Xiao Yaqing, Minister of Industry and Information Technology, attended and delivered a speech. Gong Zheng, Deputy Secretary of Shanghai Municipal Party Committee and Mayor, presided over the meeting. Dong Yunhu, chairman of the Shanghai CPPCC, and Yu Shaoliang, deputy secretary of the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee, attended the opening ceremony.

Artificial intelligence is profoundly changing the present and shaping the future at an unprecedented rate

Li Qiang pointed out that artificial intelligence is achieving technological evolution and cutting-edge breakthroughs at an unprecedented speed, linking all things and the world with unprecedented breadth, empowering industries and the world with unprecedented depth, profoundly changing the present and shaping the future. Entering an era of intelligent interconnection of all things with the ternary integration of “human-machine-object”. This should be an era of human-machine collaboration and cross-border integration, an era of collective intelligence empowerment, co-creation and sharing, and it should better become an era of inclusiveness, inclusiveness, and collaborative governance. We must embrace trends and the future with enthusiasm, respond rationally to risks and challenges, better coordinate development and security, and make artificial intelligence truly usable and beneficial to mankind.

The collaborative innovation effect, industrial agglomeration effect, empowering industry effect, and policy clustering effect in the field of artificial intelligence are increasingly emerging

Li Qiang pointed out that Shanghai regards the development of artificial intelligence as a priority strategic choice for the future. The agglomeration effect, the empowerment effect, and the policy bundle effect are increasingly emerging.

Continue to build a more integrated open ecosystem, more active innovation clusters, more ubiquitous super-scenarios, and more secure agile governance

Li Qiang pointed out that at present, Shanghai is comprehensively promoting the digital transformation of the city and accelerating the city’s leap from informatization to intelligence. It is necessary to continue to create a more integrated and open ecosystem, actively integrate into the global innovation network, vigorously promote the opening of innovation platforms, data resources, and application scenarios, and strengthen exchanges and cooperation with cities, enterprises and international research institutions around the world. A win-win partner. It is necessary to continue to create more active innovation clusters, pay more attention to original innovation, improve the ability to source innovation, encourage scientists and scientific and technological workers to bravely venture into no-man’s land, build more innovation consortia with cross-border integration, and strive to develop basic theories and key technologies. More breakthrough achievements have been made in such aspects as the advancement of the AI ​​industry foundation, the modernization of the industrial chain, and the acceleration of the creation of world-class industrial clusters. It is necessary to continue to create more ubiquitous super-scenarios, vigorously promote the opening of larger-scale scenarios, and allow artificial intelligence to fully bloom in empowering thousands of industries and reaching thousands of households, creating a new economic model, new life experience, and new governance in the intelligent age. paradigm. It is necessary to continue to create more secure and agile governance, demonstrate the concept of science and technology for good, continuously strengthen institutional supply, and strive to form the “Shanghai Plan” in improving the regulatory system, standard system, and supervision system, and contribute Shanghai wisdom to global AI governance.

Promote intelligent technology innovation, enhance development momentum, expand intelligent economic space, share development dividends, discuss artificial intelligence governance, and optimize the development of the ecological environment

Xiao Yaqing pointed out that with the joint efforts of government, industry, academia, research and application, my country’s artificial intelligence industry has made remarkable progress, technological innovation and application capabilities in some fields have entered the international advanced ranks, the scale of core industries has continued to grow, and the integration of intelligent technology and the real economy has been further deepened. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology works with relevant parties to promote the development of artificial intelligence, strengthen innovation-driven, deepen reform and exploration, and create a favorable environment for industrial development. In the next step, it is hoped that all parties will join hands to jointly promote intelligent technology innovation, enhance development momentum, jointly expand intelligent economic space, share development dividends, and jointly discuss artificial intelligence governance and optimize the development of the ecological environment.

Well-known experts and scholars at home and abroad, entrepreneurs, investors, etc. attended the conference on-site or through the cloud venue

The opening ceremony takes the form of online and offline combination, live speech, video connection and other forms. Carrie Lam, Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Bernard Salmendo, Executive Director of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, representatives of scientists from five continents, and representatives of some countries and cities delivered speeches via video.

At the opening ceremony, a new batch of major AI application scenarios in Shanghai and the selection results of the 2021 Outstanding AI Leader Award were released.

In the keynote speech session, Li Yanhong, founder, chairman and CEO of Baidu, Ma Huateng, chairman and CEO of Tencent, Joseph Sfakis, winner of the Turing Award, Mei Hong, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Schoenberg, professor of Oxford University Gree, Hu Houkun, Rotating Chairman of Huawei, Bo Leren, Chairman of the Board of Directors, President and CEO of Siemens AG, Dong Mingzhu, Chairman and President of Gree Electric Appliances, and Zhou Hongyi, Founder and Chairman of 360 Group, respectively, on artificial intelligence changing the future of mankind, He delivered speeches on the challenges of generalized artificial intelligence, open innovation of artificial intelligence, and digital transformation of cities empowered by artificial intelligence.

In the theme dialogue session, Xu Li, co-founder and CEO of SenseTime, Shen Nanpeng, global executive partner of Sequoia Capital, and Sun Zhengyi, representative president, chairman and CEO of Software Bank Group, discussed artificial intelligence lighting up life. New welfare and other issues.

Former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, dual-appointed professor Shen Xiangyang of Tsinghua University Institute for Advanced Study, and Joshua Reimer, Chairman and CEO of Sona Corporation, discussed artificial intelligence and human historical development, global co-governance of artificial intelligence and other topics. dialogue.

Xiang Libin, Vice Minister of Science and Technology, Wang Zhijun, Vice Minister of Industry and Information Technology, Yang Xiaowei, Deputy Director of the State Internet Information Office, Zhong Zhihua, Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Shu Wei, Member of the Party Group and Secretary of the Secretariat of the China Association for Science and Technology, and Chen Yin, Leader of Shanghai , Wu Qing, Weng Zuliang, Zhuge Yujie, Xiao Guiyu attended the opening ceremony.

Relevant ministries and commissions of the state and relevant departments and district responsible comrades of Shanghai attended the opening ceremony. During the conference, more than 6,000 well-known experts, scholars, entrepreneurs and investors from the field of artificial intelligence at home and abroad will participate in the conference or through the newly built cloud venue, including 5 Turing Award winners and 1 Nobel Prize winner. Winner, 62 domestic and foreign academicians.

Better play the important role of “science and technology vane, application Display stand, industry accelerator, and governance council”

Before the opening ceremony, city leaders and leaders of relevant national ministries and commissions came to the 2021 World Artificial Intelligence Conference innovation application exhibition area to visit the booths of Huawei, AI@Shanghai Theme Exhibition, Bank of Communications, and Smart Central Taiwan, and inspect the cutting-edge algorithm models of artificial intelligence and smart finance. , smart medical care and smart venues and other related products and application scenarios, learn about Shanghai’s artificial intelligence core chip algorithm technology breakthroughs, empowering industries and industrial ecological construction. Li Qiang pointed out that it is necessary to make better use of the important role of the World Artificial Intelligence Conference as a “technological vane, application Display stand, industry accelerator, and governance forum”, build an important platform for sharing wisdom and achievements, and work together with friends at home and abroad to create intelligence. The bright future of the times.

Focusing on the digital transformation of cities empowered by artificial intelligence, nearly 100 forums and special events were held, and a special exhibition with a scale of 40,000 square meters was organized.

The 2021 World Artificial Intelligence Conference with the theme of “Intelligent Connectivity in the World” will be held in Shanghai from July 8 to 10. It will focus on the digital transformation of cities powered by artificial intelligence. Nearly 100 forums and special activities will be held, organized A special exhibition with a scale of 40,000 square meters, as well as related competition awards, intelligent application experience, and a new cloud platform 2.0 to provide cloud live broadcast, cloud venue, cloud exhibition, etc.

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Dongxin Semiconductor completes listing guidance and plans to apply for IPO on the Science and Technology Innovation Board

On September 14, the Shanghai Securities Regulatory Commission disclosed the public announcement of the summary report of Haitong Securities on the counseling work of Dongxin semiconductor Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Eastcore Semiconductor”).

According to the report, Haitong Securities, as the guidance institution for Dongxin Semiconductor’s initial public offering of stocks and listing on the Science and Technology Innovation Board, provides guidance to Dongxin Semiconductor in accordance with the China Securities Regulatory Commission’s “Administrative Measures for the Sponsorship of Securities Issuance and Listing Sponsorship Business” and the listing guidance agreement. Work, and submitted the counseling filing registration materials to the Shanghai Securities Regulatory Bureau on June 15, 2020. As of the date of this report, the counseling work has achieved good results and has reached the goals and requirements of the counseling plan.

According to the data, Dongxin Semiconductor was established in November 2014, focusing on the research and development, design and sales of small and medium-capacity general-purpose memory chips. According to the report, the 24nm NAND and 48nm NOR mass-produced by Dongxin Semiconductor are the most advanced flash memory chip processes in mainland China, achieving technological breakthroughs in local memory chips.

The report also pointed out that Dongxin Semiconductor’s products have not only been certified by many well-known platform manufacturers such as Qualcomm, Broadcom, Intel, HiSilicon, and MediaTek, but also entered Huawei, Apple, Samsung, Hikvision, Goertek, BYD, etc. The supply chain system of well-known customers at home and abroad is widely used in 5G base stations, security equipment, TWS, automotive dashboards and other terminal products.

In April 2019, Dongxin Semiconductor approved the overall change of the limited company into a joint-stock company through a resolution of the shareholders’ meeting; in June 2019, the Shanghai Administration for Market Regulation issued the changed “Business License”, and Dongxin Semiconductor officially completed the change.

As of the date of issuance of the report, Dongxin Semiconductor’s controlling shareholder is Oriental Hengxin Capital Holding Group Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Oriental Hengxin”), Dongxin Hengxin directly holds 43.18% of the shares of Dongxin Semiconductor, and the actual controller of Dongxin Semiconductor is Jiang Xueming. In addition to Dongfang Hengxin, the main shareholders of Dongxin Semiconductor also include Shanghai Juyuan Juxin Integrated Circuit Industry Equity Investment Fund Center (Limited Partnership).

According to the report, in order to ensure that the company uses the raised funds reasonably and effectively, and promotes the sustainable and healthy development of the company’s main business, combined with the development of the domestic and foreign markets, the counseling group has repeatedly discussed the use of the raised funds with the company’s management, and has clarified the plan to use the raised funds. The raised funds will be used for 1x nm flash memory product R&D and industrialization projects, automotive-grade flash memory product R&D and industrialization projects, R&D center construction projects and projects to supplement working capital.

Haitong Securities stated that after guidance and regulation, Dongxin Semiconductor has complied with relevant laws and regulations such as the Company Law and the Securities Law, as well as the requirements of the China Securities Regulatory Commission and the Shanghai Stock Exchange for the standardized operation of listed companies to be issued. The company has already met the application requirements for tutoring and acceptance and reporting to the China Securities Regulatory Commission and the Shanghai Stock Exchange for initial public offering and listing on the Science and Technology Innovation Board.

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Six questions about Jeep Black Knight: How did the heroic temperament comparable to Captain America come into being?

When it comes to Black Knight, the first thing that comes to mind is the Marvel superhero “Black Knight”. The Black Knight is a member of the Avengers and a superhero spokesperson comparable to Captain America. However, the Black Knight we mentioned today is a smart wearable product that can make you fall in love at first sight – the Jeep Black Knight Smart Sports Watch F-X1. Although it is not a real Marvel hero, in the hearts of tough guys who like outdoor sports, the Jeep Black Knight smartwatch has a heroic temperament comparable to Captain America and is very popular.

So, how did the heroic temperament of the Jeep Black Knight come about? Here, the editor asks the Jeep Black Knight six times to reveal the growth path of TA for you!

A question to Jeep Black Knight: How is the “core” of a hero made?

Only with a hero’s heart can a hero’s dream be achieved.

Jeep Black Knight is equipped with a powerful smart core – UNISOC 8541E high-performance 4G smart watch platform. The platform faces the global mainstream market, and has reached the industry-leading level in terms of product performance and commercial maturity. It is the preferred solution for smartwatch products.

Ivy 8541E adopts mature 28nm HPC process technology, built-in 4-core ARM Cortex™-A53 processor, clocked at 1.4GHz, equipped with Mali T820 graphics processor with 3D graphics acceleration, and supports five-mode Cat4 communication. At the same time, it integrates 2G/3G/4G communication modules, BT, Wi-Fi, GNSS and other technologies to provide applications such as AI scene recognition, and the communication modules it carries have passed the network certification of more than 200 operators around the world, so you can rest assured when going abroad. use.

With such a hero’s “core”, the Jeep Black Knight runs faster, has more accurate positioning, and has more endurance. It can achieve high-precision sub-meter-level positioning outdoors, so that you will not get lost wherever you are; you can also run more APPs and online programs to ensure your social interaction; the large battery and low-power chips can ensure outdoor 72 Hours of worry-free application… In short, with the Ivy 8541E, the Jeep Black Knight smartwatch can be called a “tech hero” in the smartwatch circle.

Second question to Jeep Black Knight: Is the hero’s “face value” cool enough?

This is an era of looking at the face, and heroes must have a handsome appearance.

Jeep Black Knight smart watch, the appearance is created by the red dot designer team, inherits the classic design aesthetics of the Jeep family, and has a cool style and personality, which reflects the passion and freedom of life advocated by the Jeep brand. The 1.6-inch SUPER SCREEN high-definition color screen has a pixel density of 353PPI, which surpasses most watches released today in terms of screen clarity, bringing a wider field of view and more exquisite picture details, smooth touch, and better user experience. . In addition to the 48mm dial size, the professional outdoor design makes it feel like a tough guy when worn on the wrist.

In addition, the Jeep Black Knight uses a high-strength sabic case that supports IP68 waterproof life, making it safer for outdoor use. The TA, who was born for the outdoors, combines roughness and sophistication, and is full of black superheroes.

Three questions to Jeep Black Knight: Is his ability “tough” and worthy of the name of a hero

Hero shot, strength, speed, endurance are indispensable.

Based on the Ivy 8541E smart black technology, the Jeep Black Knight smartwatch can definitely show off its powerful muscles with all its opponents. In terms of capabilities, the Jeep Black Knight smartwatch is equipped with a self-developed cloud map system and hurricane software based on the Android system. The overall operation is very smooth. Compared with similar products, the performance is improved by 30%, and the power consumption is reduced by 25%. In terms of speed, it is equipped with a new flash charging technology, which can charge 50% in 15 minutes and can be fully charged in 60 minutes. Wheel endurance, using a large battery with a low-power chip, the typical usage scenario can last up to 72 hours.

The “toughness” of the Jeep Black Knight smartwatch doesn’t stop there. This smart watch supports an independent SIM card, and supports separate voice/video calls, data Internet access, and Wi-Fi connections like mobile phones, and can instantly receive and reply to WeChat and QQ information during exercise, fully satisfying the “put aside” The original intention of mobile phone to exercise”. At the same time, it has built-in support for GPS/Beidou dual-satellite combined positioning system, and the positioning can be accurate to within 2m. You can also use the destination navigation function in the watch, and you can find your way home even if you leave the mobile phone.

It can be said that the Jeep Black Knight is fully functional, and basically integrates all the smartwatch functions on the market, including taking pictures, video calls, installing apps, face unlocking, and more.

Four questions to Jeep Black Knight: Is “intelligence” good?

Every hero is the embodiment of wisdom and strength.

In addition to the above powerful features, Jeep Black Knight also has excellent AI smart settings. AI recognition, intelligent learning applications and other functions are all available. For example, it supports the face recognition unlocking function, and the face information is recorded like our mobile phones, and the unlocking can be completed in the blink of an eye. For another example, like a mobile phone, it is equipped with an intelligent voice assistant, which supports weather query, voice dialing, route navigation, and encyclopedia query.

Five questions about Jeep’s Black Knight: Is it a “boring” black face

Heroes are not all black faces with a straight face, only interesting and predictable are more close to the people.

On the equipped 1.6-inch large screen, you can not only video chat, but also swipe Douyin and other god operations. This watch is equipped with dual cameras and a front 200W pixel high-definition camera, which can easily meet the needs of daily video calls. The 500W pixel high-definition camera on the side, recording sports or travel punch-in sharing with a unique perspective, is so different. It is worth mentioning that both the front and rear high-definition cameras support 4 beauty modes, 5 color modes and 9 filter styles, a new experience in fashionable photography, making every photo more colorful.

Six Questions for Jeep Black Knight: Is “Connotation” Enough to Carry Applications

Heroes must also have “connotation”, and they are cute when they are rich and delicate in their hearts

The reason why Jeep Black Knight can carry a variety of applications, can make calls, listen to music, swipe Douyin, and chat online is omnipotent, that is because there is a 64G large storage, which can meet the storage needs of videos, pictures, and music.

In addition, Jeep Black Knight understands your physical and mental health better, supports real-time detection of your heart rate status, built-in multiple sensors, and is equipped with breathing light reminders, which can accurately monitor physical characteristics in real time, so that you can keep abreast of your physical status when exercising. Protect your physical and mental health.

Well, the above is all the content of the six-question Jeep Black Knight smartwatch: there is a hero’s “core”, beauty, energy, wisdom, fun, and connotation. Such a “six-you” smartwatch has a worthy More heroic than Captain America, don’t you like it?

Note: The product description, data and product pictures in this article are from the introduction of the Jeep Jingdong details page

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AI at the Edge: How ‘Collaborative Robots’ Process Sensor Data Fast

Whether traditional industrial robotic systems, or today’s most advanced collaborative robots (Cobots), they rely on sensors that generate large amounts of highly variable data. This data helps build better machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) models. Robots rely on these models to become “autonomous,” making real-time decisions and navigating in dynamic, real-world environments.

By Matthieu Chevrier, Systems and Applications Manager, Global Industrial Systems Division, Texas Instruments

Whether traditional industrial robotic systems, or today’s most advanced collaborative robots (Cobots), they rely on sensors that generate large amounts of highly variable data. This data helps build better machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) models. Robots rely on these models to become “autonomous,” making real-time decisions and navigating in dynamic, real-world environments.

Industrial robots are often located in “closed” environments where, for safety reasons, if a human enters the environment, the robot stops moving. But limiting human/robot collaboration also prevents many benefits from being realized. Robots with autonomous operation can support safe and efficient coexistence of humans and robots.

Sensing and intellisense for robotics applications are very important because the efficient performance of robotic systems, especially ML/AI systems, depends heavily on the performance of the sensors that provide critical data to these systems. Today’s vast array of increasingly sophisticated and precise sensors, combined with systems that can fuse data from all of these sensors together, can support robots with increasing awareness and awareness.

Development of AI

Robotic automation has always been a revolutionary technology in manufacturing, and the integration of AI into robots is clearly set to revolutionize robotics in the years to come. This article explores some of the key trends in robotics, automation, and the most important technologies for today’s AI and AI-required data that are tightly linked to enable intelligence. It also discusses how different sensors can be used and integrated in AI systems.

Pushing AI Processing Technology for Robots to Edge Computing

ML consists of two main parts: training and inference, which can be performed on disparate processing platforms. Training is often done offline on a desktop or in the cloud, and involves incorporating big data into neural networks. At this stage, neither real-time performance nor functionality is an issue. The result of the training phase is that at the time of deployment there is already a trained AI system capable of performing specific tasks, such as investigating bottlenecks on an assembly line, counting and tracking people in a room or determining if a bill is fake .

However, for AI to realize its promise in many industries, the fusion of sensor data must be done in real-time or near real-time during inference (execution of a trained ML algorithm). To do this, designers need to implement ML and deep learning models at the edge, deploying inference capabilities into embedded systems.

For example, set up collaborative robots in the workplace (see Figure 1) to work closely with people. It needs to use data from near-field sensors as well as vision sensors to ensure that it successfully prevents humans from being harmed while supporting them in performing activities that are difficult for them. All of this data needs to be processed in real time, but the cloud is not as fast as the real-time, low-latency responses that collaborative robots need. To overcome this bottleneck, people have developed today’s advanced AI systems to the edge domain, that is, robots are meant to exist in edge devices.


Figure 1: Humans interact with cobots in a factory environment.

This distributed AI model relies on highly integrated processors with:

A rich set of peripherals for interfacing with different sensors

High-performance processing capabilities to run machine vision algorithms

Methods to accelerate deep learning inference.

In addition, all of these functions must also work efficiently and with relatively low power consumption and relatively small size in order to carry them by the edge.

As ML becomes more pervasive, so does the availability of our power- and size-optimized “inference engines.” These engines are hardware products specially designed to perform ML inference.

An integrated system-on-chip (SoC) is often a good choice in the embedded space because, in addition to wrapping the various processing elements that can run deep learning inference, an SoC integrates many of the necessary components to make an embedded application complete.

Let’s analyze the hot robotics trends in today’s era.

Collaborative Robots (Cobots)

Near-traditional industrial robots have no peripherals, but people generally don’t have access to them. In contrast, cobots are designed to interact safely with humans while running, moving slowly and gracefully.

According to the definition of ISO standard TS 15066, a collaborative robot is a robot that can be used in a collaborative environment. Cooperative operation means that the robot and the human work synchronously in a defined workspace for production operations (this does not include robot + robot systems or co-located humans and robots operating at different times). Define and deploy cobots that anticipate potential conflicts between the physical parts of the robot (such as actual functional extensions, such as lasers) and the operator. What’s more, this uses sensors to determine the precise position and velocity of the operator.

Collaborative robot makers must implement a high level of environmental sensing and redundancy in robotic systems in order to quickly detect and prevent possible conflicts. The integrated sensor is connected to the control unit to sense the imminent collision of the robot arm with a person or other object, and the control unit will immediately shut down the robot. The robot will also shut down if any sensor or its Electronic circuit fails.

logistics robot

Logistics robots are mobile devices that operate in environments that may or may not be occupied, such as warehouses, distribution centers, ports, or campuses. Logistics robots pick up and bring goods to packing stations, or transport goods from one building on a company site to another; some logistics robots also pick and pack. These robots typically move in specific environments and require sensors for localization, mapping, and conflict prevention (especially with humans).

Until recently, most logistics robots used predefined routes; now they are able to adjust their navigation based on the location of other robots, people and goods. Ultrasonic, infrared and LIDAR sensing are all technologies that are currently in use. Due to the mobility of the robot, the control unit located inside it generally communicates with the central remote control wirelessly. Logistics robots have adopted advanced technologies, including ML logic, human-machine collaboration, and environmental analysis technologies.

Rising labor costs and strict government regulations have prompted the wider use of logistics robots. Their popularity has also grown, as the cost of components such as equipment and sensors has fallen, as has the cost (and time required) for integration.

Last mile delivery robot

“Last mile” delivery is the last step in the logistics process as it moves a product from a warehouse shelf to a customer’s doorstep: the moment when the goods finally arrive at the buyer’s door. Not only is this critical to how satisfied customers are, but last-mile delivery is expensive and time-consuming.

The cost of last-mile delivery accounts for the bulk of the overall freight cost: by itself, making last-mile deliveries more efficient has become a focus in the development and implementation of new robotics that drive process improvement and increase efficiency.

Sensor Technology for AI in Robotics

As robotics advances, so does complementary sensor technology. Much like the human five senses, combining different sensing technologies can provide the best results when deploying robotic systems in changing and uncontrolled environments. Even the simplest tasks performed by robots will depend on 3D machine vision to feed data into AI technology. Without machine vision capable of reconstructing 3D images, and AI transforming this visual information into successful movements in robotics, grasping objects without predetermined positions and motions is impossible.

The most popular and relevant sensor technologies used to support AI in robotics today include:

Time of flight (ToF) optical sensor: This sensor is based on the ToF principle and uses photodiodes (single sensor element or an array) and active illumination to measure distance. The delay is measured by comparing the light wave reflected from the obstacle with the transmitted wave, which represents the distance. This data helps create a 3D map of the object.

Temperature and Humidity Sensors: Many robots need to measure the temperature and sometimes the humidity of their environment and their components, including the motors and the main AI motherboard, to ensure they are operating within safe limits.

Ultrasonic Sensors: If the robot cannot see in a bright environment or cannot find itself in a very dark environment, the vision sensor is not working. By transmitting ultrasonic waves and listening for echoes reflected off objects (similar to how bats operate), ultrasonic sensors can perform well in dark or bright environments, overcoming the limitations of optical sensors.

Shock Sensors: Industrial shock sensing is a core part of condition monitoring necessary for preventive maintenance. Integrated electronic piezoelectric sensors are the most commonly used shock sensors in industrial environments.

Millimeter-wave sensors: Millimeter-wave sensors use radio waves and their echoes to determine the direction and distance of moving objects by measuring three factors: speed, angle, and range. This helps the robot take more precautionary measures based on how quickly an object is approaching the sensor. Radar sensors perform exceptionally well in dark environments and can sense through materials such as drywall, plastic and glass.

While humans still perform most tasks on the factory floor, robots will adapt to human jobs and increase automation. To achieve this, they need to be equipped with more AI capabilities to recognize and adapt to situations in real time, which is only possible when AI is at the forefront.

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ON Semiconductor’s Energy Efficient Smart Meter Power Solution

Keywords:

In recent years, all countries in the world have developed smart grids, and smart meters play a key role in this application, enabling users to interact with the power system. Different electricity prices are set for low valley electricity consumption; on the other hand, users can also adjust their electricity consumption plans to save electricity expenses.

From the perspective of the composition of smart meters, it mainly includes functional modules such as communication, power supply and power management, metering and storage. As the premier high-performance silicon solution provider for energy-efficient Electronic products, ON semiconductor provides a wealth of solutions for various functional modules of smart meters, such as PLC modems and line drivers, amplifiers, voltage regulators, monitoring, voltage protection, Temperature sensor, real-time clock, memory, LCD backlight, I/O interface, smart card interface and I/O expander, etc.

Among them, in terms of power supply and power management modules (see Figure 1), ON Semiconductor also provides a rich selection of products, including high-voltage AC-DC (AC-DC) switching regulators, DC-DC (DC-DC) switches Regulators/controllers and low dropout (LDO) linear regulators, etc. (see Table 1), making it easy for users to choose the right solution for their specific application. These power solutions feature high energy efficiency, low power consumption, and rich protection features, making them ideal for smart meter applications.


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1: Block diagram of smart meter power supply and power management module.


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1:ON Semiconductor’s device list for smart meter power and power management modules.

Provides high energy efficiency and low standby power consumptionAC-DCswitching regulator

As shown in Table 1, in the AC-DC power conversion part, a series of switching regulators from ON Semiconductor can be selected, such as NCP1010/1/2/3/4 self-powered monolithic switching regulators suitable for low power applications , NCP1027 high-voltage monolithic switching regulator for medium power applications, and high-voltage gated switching regulator NCP1050/1/2/3/4/5, etc.

Take the NCP101x as an example, this family of devices integrates a fixed frequency current mode controller and a 700 V MOSFET with typical on-resistance of 11 or 22 Ω, providing all the features required to build a robust and low-cost switching power supply, including soft-start, frequency Jitter, short circuit protection, skip period, maximum peak current set point and dynamic self-powering (no auxiliary winding required), etc. During normal load operation, the NCP101x switches at one of 65, 100, and 130 kHz; and when the current setpoint drops below a given value (eg, when the output power demand disappears), the NCP101x automatically enters a so-called Cycle-skipping mode, in which unwanted switching cycles are skipped, provides excellent light-load efficiency. No audible noise is generated because entry into skip cycle mode typically occurs at 1/4 of the maximum peak current. As a result, standby power consumption is minimized and no audible noise is produced. The typical application circuit of NCP101x and the key parameters of different models are shown in Figure 2.


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2: Typical application circuit of NCP101x monolithic switching regulator and key parameters of different devices.

The NCP1027 provides a new solution for general purpose mains flyback applications targeting output power levels ranging from a few watts to 15 W. The device uses ON Semiconductor’s proprietary high-voltage technology and integrates power MOSFETs and startup current sources that are both directly connected to bulk capacitors. To prevent thermal runaway under low input voltage conditions, the device features an adjustable input undervoltage protection circuit that prevents this condition until sufficient input levels are reached. Other features of this device include adjustable slope compensation, over-power protection, short-circuit protection, over-voltage protection, and more. Additionally, the NCP1027 offers a large value of on-resistance, making it an excellent choice for standby/auxiliary off-line power supplies or applications requiring higher output power.

The NCP105x are monolithic switching regulators that enable end equipment to meet low standby energy requirements. These devices operate directly from rectified AC line power. In flyback converter applications, they are capable of delivering 6.0 to 40 W of output power at a fixed AC input voltage of 100, 115 or 230 V, and 3.0 to 20 W at a variable AC input voltage of 85 to 265 V output power. This family of devices provides an active start-up regulator circuit that eliminates the need for an auxiliary bias winding on the converter transformer. Other features include fault detector and programmable timer (for converter overload protection), unique gating configuration (providing extremely fast loop response and dual pulse rejection), power switch current limiting, input undervoltage with hysteresis Lockout, thermal shutdown, and auto-restart fault detection, etc. Typical current limit thresholds for these devices range from 100 mA to 680 mA at a junction temperature of 25 °C.

available at different current levelsDC-DCswitching regulator

Engineers can also choose different DC-DC switching regulator solutions from ON Semiconductor according to specific applications, such as 3 A switching regulator NCP3155, 1.5 A switching regulator NCP3063/4, 0.5/1.0/3 A switching regulator LM2594/5/6, NCP3020/11 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) controller and NCP1034 PWM controller.

Take NCP3155 as an example, this is a new DC-DC synchronous buck regulator launched by ON Semiconductor, including two versions of NCP3155A and NCP3155B. The NCP3155 includes fully integrated power switches (48 mΩ high-side FET and 18 mΩ low-side FET), providing complete fault protection features (input undervoltage lockout, output overvoltage protection and output undervoltage protection, current limit and short circuit protection). The device has an input voltage range of 4.7 to 24 V and an adjustable output voltage. The NCP3155 supports higher operating frequencies (500 kHz for version A and 1 MHz for version B), enabling the use of smaller filter components, reducing board space and bill of material (BOM) costs. NCP3155 adopts SOIC-8 package, the typical application circuit diagram is shown in Figure 3.


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3: NCP3155A typical application circuit diagram.

The NCP3063 and NCP3064 are 1.5 A step-up, step-down, and inverting switching regulators with built-in temperature compensated reference, comparator, duty cycle controlled oscillator and active current limiting circuit, driver and high current switch. This family of devices is designed for boost, buck, and voltage inversion applications with minimal external components. This family of devices has output switching currents up to 1.5 A and can also be used as controllers supporting up to 5 A. Unlike the NCP3063, the NCP3064 provides an on/off pin for a low-power shutdown mode with typical standby current consumption of only 100 μA.

The LM2594, LM2595, and LM2596 are 0.5 A, 1.0 A, and 3 A step-down switching regulators, respectively. Compared to common three-terminal linear regulators, this family of devices is much more energy efficient, especially at higher input voltages. This family of devices operates at a 150 kHz switching frequency, enabling the use of smaller filter components. Other features include: guaranteed ±4% output voltage tolerance at specified input voltage and output load conditions, oscillator frequency accuracy of ±15%, support for external shutdown (typically 50 μA standby current for LM2594 and LM2595, 80 μA for LM2596) ), output switch cycle-by-cycle current limiting, and thermal shutdown under fault conditions.

Both NCP3020/11 and NCP1034 are synchronous step-down PWM controllers. Among them, the NCP3021/11 supports an input voltage range of 4.7 to 28 V, provides enable (EN)/power good (PG)/sync (SYNC) pins, and switching frequencies of 300/400/600 kHz. Protection features include lossless current limiting, short circuit protection, output overvoltage protection, output undervoltage protection, and input undervoltage lockout.

Unlike the NCP3020/11, the NCP1034 can accept input voltages up to 100 V, offers an adjustable switching frequency from 50 kHz to 500 kHz, has a 2 A output current capability, and provides user-programmable input undervoltage lockout and hiccup protection features such as current limiting.

Linearity available at different current levelsLDOStabilizer

ON Semiconductor also provides linear low-dropout voltage regulators with different current levels, which is convenient for users to choose. These LDO regulators include LP2951, NCP4640/1, NCP562 and NCP4588.

Among them, the LP2951 is a 100 mA multi-function LDO linear regulator specially designed for voltage regulation applications where the input to output voltage difference is extremely low. The device provides a very low quiescent bias current of 75 μA and offers a fixed or adjustable output voltage (programmable from 1.25 V to 29 V). The NCP4640 and NCP4641 are 50/150 mA linear regulators that support 4 to 36 V input voltages and are 50 V tolerant. The NCP562 is an 80 mA ultra-low quiescent current LDO regulator with quiescent current as low as 2.5 μA. The NCP4588 is a 200 mA output LDO linear regulator with a typical quiescent current of less than 9.5 μA, a standby current of 0.1 μA, voltage drop down to 270 mV, and a high 70 dB power supply rejection ratio (PSSR). The device eliminates the need for an output capacitor even when the load current varies, maintaining stable operation without an output capacitor. However, if the load varies greatly, it is best to use an output capacitor of 0.1 μF to 10 μF.


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4: The NCP4588 can maintain stable operation even when the output capacitor is omitted.

Other ON Semiconductor Solutions for Smart Metering

As mentioned above, ON Semiconductor provides a wealth of solutions for smart meter applications, in addition to the above power supply and power management solutions, it also includes Power Line Carrier (PLC) modems, as well as a wealth of memory (EEPROM and SRAM), clocks, interfaces, protection/ Filter products, etc., constitute our complete solution for smart meters.

For example, ON Semiconductor has introduced an AMIS-49587 highly integrated low-power PLC modem solution that supports a higher half-duplex adjustable communication rate of 2.4 kb, compliant with the IEC61334-5-1 standard, and a high energy efficiency capable of driving up to 2 A of current. The latest Class A/B low distortion line driver, the NCS5650, works well with smart meter PLC modems and line driver applications.


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5: PLC modem and line driver solution applied to smart meter communication module.

Summarize:

Power and power management are important functional modules of smart meters. ON Semiconductor provides a rich selection of products for this functional module, including AC-DC switching regulators, DC-DC switching regulators and LDO linear regulators, so that users can choose suitable devices according to specific applications. In addition to power supply and power management solutions, ON Semiconductor also provides a wealth of solutions for other functional modules for smart meter applications, such as PLC modems and line drivers, memories (EEPROM and SRAM), clocks, interfaces, protection/filtering products, etc. A complete solution for smart meters.

feed: ON Semiconductor

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NXP TEA1733MT GreenChip Switching Power Supply Solution

NXP’s TEA1733MT is a TEA1733 series GreenChip switching power supply (SMPS) control IC, which is suitable for low-cost flyback topology, works in fixed frequency mode, and frequency jitter reduces EMI. The input voltage is 12V-30V, the current for starting and restarting is very low, only 10uA, and the working current when there is no load is 0.5mA, which is suitable for switching power supplies below 75W. This article introduces the main features, block diagram, typical configuration diagram and typical application circuit diagram of TEA1733MT as well as the typical application circuit diagram of TEA1733.

TEA1733MT: GreenChip SMPS control IC

The TEA1733MT is a low cost Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS) controller IC intended for flyback topologies. It operates in fixed frequency mode. Frequency jitter has been implemented to reduce ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI). Slope compensation is integrated for Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM ) operation.

The TEA1733MT IC includes OverPower Protection (OPP). This enables the controller to operate under overpower situations for a limited amount of time.

Two pins, VINSENSE and PROTECT, are reserved for protection purposes. Input UnderVoltage Protection (UVP) and OverVoltage Protection (OVP), output OVP and OverTemperature Protection (OTP) can be implemented using a minimal number of external components.

At low power levels the primary peak current is set to 25 % of the maximum peak current and the switching frequency is reduced to limit switching losses. The combination of fixed frequency operation at high output power and frequency reduction at low output power provides high-efficiency over the total load range.

The TEA1733MT enables low-cost, highly efficient and reliable supplies for power requirements up to 75 W to be designed easily and with a minimum number of external components.

Main features of TEA1733MT:

SMPS controller IC enabling low-cost applications

Large input voltage range (12 V to 30 V)

Very low supply current during start-up and restart (typically 10 uA)

Low supply current during normal operation (typically 0.55 mA without load)

Overpower or high/low line compensation

Adjustable overpower time-out

Adjustable overpower restart timer

Fixed switching frequency with frequency jitter to reduce EMI

Frequency reduction with fixed minimum peak current to maintain high-efficiency at low output power levels

Slope compensation for CCM operation

Low and adjustable OverCurrent Protection (OCP) trip level

Adjustable soft start operation

Two protection inputs (eg for input UVP and OVP, OTP and output OVP)

IC overtemperature protection

TEA1733MT application:

All applications requiring efficient and cost-effective power supply solutions up to
75W.

figure 1. TEA1733MT block diagram

figure 2. Typical configuration diagram of TEA1733MT

image 3. Typical application circuit diagram of TEA1733MT

Figure 4. Typical application circuit diagram of TEA1733
For details, see:
http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/TEA1733MT.pdf
and
http://www.nxp.com/documents/application_note/AN10868.pdf

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Intel: Are you ready to give up on chip manufacturing?

How hard will the job of Intel’s new CEO be? The company’s biggest rival offered some important clues.

Pat Gelsinger won’t take over as Intel’s CEO until mid-February, but the company’s fiscal fourth-quarter results due Thursday afternoon could at least give a strong signal about his initial line of work. . Intel has pledged to use the opportunity to update investors on its ongoing manufacturing issues. Intel has also said that through this earnings release, it will indicate whether the company intends to stick to its long-standing practice of being the sole manufacturer of chips it designs, or whether it will begin to outsource the production of some future designs, likely to Taiwan. Integrated Circuit Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (Taiwan semiconductor Manufacturing Co., 2330.TW, TSM, referred to as TSMC).

  

It’s not hard to see from Geelsinger’s long-time stint as an Intel engineer that the chipmaker isn’t ready to give up on the manufacturing business. But competing with the thriving TSMC will be a daunting task. TSMC reported on Thursday that its 2020 revenue jumped 31% to a record $45.5 billion, the company’s biggest revenue increase in more than a decade. Given so much demand for the company’s manufacturing services, TSMC also plans to spend record capital expenditures in the coming year to expand production capacity. The chipmaker expects to spend between $25 billion and $28 billion in 2021, double Intel’s average annual capital spending over the past five years.

Still, Intel is much larger, and the company is expected to generate about $75.3 billion in 2020 revenue, up 5% from the previous year. But the boost from the recent surge in PC sales and data center demand isn’t a solution to the company’s manufacturing woes. Wall Street analysts now expect Intel’s revenue to fall 7% this year, which would be the company’s biggest revenue drop in more than a decade. Analysts polled by FactSet expect TSMC’s 2021 revenue to rise 20% to around $54.4 billion.

  

Intel says it has made great strides on its 7-nanometer manufacturing process, which has been the source of Intel’s recent troubles. However, TSMC is currently mass-producing more advanced chips at the 5-nanometer scale and is already developing a 3-nanometer process, which the company said on Thursday would begin mass production of chips using the 3-nanometer process in the second half of 2022. That means that even if Gersinger succeeds in getting Intel’s manufacturing process back on track, the company will still be well behind TSMC. Bernstein analyst Stacy Rasgon said Intel’s disadvantage relative to TSMC “will likely be set in stone” for at least the next three years.

So while this week’s earnings report and related updates will be delivered by current CEO Bob Swan, who will step down on February 15, it’s worth the wait to convince Intel employees, customers and investors that the company’s future is ahead. will fall on Gelsinger. It is also possible that Geersinger will try to persuade these stakeholders to accept a more radical approach, such as a joint venture with TSMC. Some analysts are even suggesting that Intel goes all-in “fabless,” which would involve exiting manufacturing entirely.

The latter scenario is unlikely, and finding a buyer for Intel’s domestic facilities that U.S. regulators can accept will not be easy. But even a more limited outsourcing strategy has its costs, given that Intel is both paying manufacturing partners and funding its own chip-making facilities.

In other words, Geersinger has no shortcuts. Intel’s appointment was warmly welcomed on Wall Street, and at least six brokerages have since upgraded the stock. It’s widely believed that leaders with technical expertise are better suited to solving Intel’s problems. But ironically, whichever route Intel takes, convincing the company’s many stakeholders to embrace it is more of a sales endeavor.

 How Intel got to where it is today

For Intel, this situation is related to some of their past events, especially the missed smartphone opportunities over the past decade.

 Question 1: Cell Phone

Smartphones have been the biggest driving force for semiconductor companies in the past decade, and despite years of efforts, Intel is still unable to break into the supply chain. The damage to the company goes deeper than the missed profits.

The cost of making smaller, more efficient processors has ballooned into the billions over the past two decades. This means that companies investing in new node chips must generate correspondingly more revenue to cover the investment. Billions of smartphones have been sold over the past decade and are an excellent source of revenue for the industry. However, PC sales have been flat for years, so Intel hasn’t benefited accordingly.

 Question 2: The server is successful

Not so long ago, Intel was a disruptor.

The server market was initially dominated by integrated companies such as Sun, who were priced to match, but the explosion in PC sales meant that Intel was rapidly increasing performance, even as it lowered prices (especially relative to performance). Of course, PCs can’t match the reliability of integrated servers, but in the early 2000s, Google realized that the scale and complexity required to deliver a service meant it was impossible to build a truly reliable stack. The solution is to build under the assumption of failure, so businesses can build their data centers on (relatively) cheap x86 processors.

Over the next two decades, every major data center operator adopted Google’s approach, and x86 became the default instruction set for servers. This makes Intel one of the biggest beneficiaries. The simple reason is that Intel makes the best x86 processors, especially for server applications. This is due to both Intel’s proprietary design and its superior manufacturing capabilities. Intel rival AMD sometimes threatens desktop supremacy, but only at the lower end of the laptop market, not the data center.

In this way, Intel escaped Microsoft’s post-PC fate of being excluded not only from mobile devices, but also from servers running Linux instead of Windows. Of course, the company tries to support Windows as much as possible on the device side (via Office) and server side (via Azure). Conversely, the push for Office could lead to the end of Windows as Office moves to the cloud with endpoints on all devices and Azure has embraced Linux. In both cases, Microsoft has to accept that its differentiation has shifted from having an API to being able to serve existing customers at scale.

The “Intel opportunity” I mentioned above will have a similar shift for Intel: while the company’s differentiation has long been based on the integration of its chip design and manufacturing, in the mobile market, x86, like Windows, will always be the computing market. few. However, that is also an opportunity.

Most chip design companies are fabless. They create the design and then give it to the fab. AMD, Nvidia, Qualcomm, MediaTek, Apple – none of them own their own factories. It certainly makes sense: manufacturing semiconductors is perhaps the most capital-intensive industry in the world, and AMD, Qualcomm, and others have been happy to focus on higher-margin design jobs.

However, most design work feels increasingly commoditized. After all, almost all mobile chips are focused on the ARM architecture. For a license fee, companies like Apple can create their own modified versions and hire fabs to make the final chips. These designs are unique in some ways, but the design of a mobile device will never be dominated by one player like Intel dominated PCs.

On the other hand, manufacturing capabilities are becoming more and more rare and therefore more valuable. In fact, there are only four major foundries today: Samsung, GlobalFoundries, TSMC, and Intel. There are only four companies capable of making the chips in every mobile device today and in all products tomorrow.

Huge demand, limited suppliers, huge barriers to entry. Now is a great time to be a manufacturing company. Might be a good time to be Intel. After all, of the four companies, the most advanced is Intel. The only problem is that Intel sees itself as a design company, up and down.

By the way, my advice doesn’t mean abandoning Intel’s x86 business. I think:

Sure, they could keep the x86 design business, but it’s not their only business, and over time, it’s not even their main business.

In fact, the x86 business proved too lucrative to take such a radical step, and that’s the “reason” that led to the company’s disruption: yes, Intel avoided Microsoft’s fate, but it also meant that the company went from Haven’t suffered the huge financial pain that forced the company to make such a huge business transformation. And, to be fair, Andy Grove also only got the company to focus entirely on processors in the first place after the memory crash of 1984.

Question 3: Manufacturing

Meanwhile, over the past decade, module-centric TSMC has made a dent in manufacturing capabilities, driven by massive sales from mobile technology and its willingness to partner with, and therefore share profits with, top-notch suppliers like ASML. beyond Intel.

This makes them a threat to Intel in several ways:

Intel has lost Apple’s Mac business, in part because of the performance of the latter’s M1 chip. It’s important to note, though, that while some measure of performance is due to Apple’s design, manufacturing on TSMC’s 5nm process is also an important factor.

Likewise, AMD chips are now faster than Intel on the desktop and very competitive in the data center. Again, part of AMD’s improvement is due to better design, but just as importantly, AMD manufactures chips on TSMC’s 7nm process.

Large cloud providers are increasingly investing in their own chip designs. For example, Amazon is in the middle of a second iteration on its ARM-based Graviton processor, which Twitter is also planning to run on. One of Graviton’s strengths is its design, but part of it – you know what to expect! – It’s also made by TSMC, also on a 7nm process (competing with Intel’s eventual 10nm process).

In short, Intel is not only under threat from x86 server vendor AMD in the data center, and even cloud companies like Amazon are integrating backwards into processors, Intel is losing PC share. I’m not even talking about the increase in other specialized data center operations, such as GPU-based applications for machine learning, which are designed by companies like Nvidia and manufactured by Samsung.

What makes the above so dangerous: The company has long since missed the mobile business, and server chips have provided the growth the company has needed to invest in manufacturing over the past decade, but the company can’t afford to lose in this area, they need Invest more than ever.

  Question 4: TSMC

Unfortunately, this isn’t the worst case yet. The day after Intel named new CEO TSMC, it announced its earnings and, more importantly, its 2021 capex metrics; according to Bloomberg:

Global chip stocks rose after TSMC announced plans to spend as much as $28 billion in capital spending. The hefty sum is intended to expand its technology leadership and build a factory in Arizona to serve key U.S. customers.

This huge sum of money will further increase TSMC’s lead.

The company’s 2021 capital spending target is $25 billion to $28 billion, compared with $17.2 billion last year. About 80 percent of that spending will be on advanced processor technology, a sign that TSMC expects a surge in cutting-edge chipmaking. Analysts expect Intel Corp, the world’s best-known chipmaker, to outsource manufacturing to TSMC after a series of internal technology slides.

That’s right: Intel, at least for now, has lost its status as a process leader. The company will maintain its design-based margins and avoid AMD’s threat by outsourcing cutting-edge chip production to TSMC, but that will only increase TSMC’s lead and won’t address Intel’s other vulnerabilities.

  Question 5: Geopolitics

This isn’t the only Intel bug to watch out for. I wrote about “Chip and Geopolitics” last year: as they say, Taiwan’s international status is complicated. So, too, is the U.S.-China relationship. These two things can and do overlap, leading to entirely new and even more complex complications.

You’ll notice that Taiwan is right off the coast of China. Samsung’s home country, South Korea, also makes the highest-end chips, and although it uses most of its own, it’s about the same. Meanwhile, the United States is on the other side of the Pacific Ocean. Oregon, New Mexico and Arizona have advanced foundries, but they are run by Intel, which only makes chips for its own integration use cases.

It’s so important because chips are important in many use cases outside of PCs and servers (which is Intel’s focus), which means TSMC is important. Today, almost every piece of equipment, military or otherwise, has a processor inside it. Some of them don’t need to be particularly high-performance and can be made in fabs built a few years ago in the U.S. and around the world. However, others require state-of-the-art processes, which means they have to be manufactured by TSMC in Taiwan.

This is a big deal if you are a US military planner. Your job is not to figure out if there will be a conflict between China and the United States, but to prepare for the eventuality that you hope it will never happen.

The context for this article is TSMC’s announcement that it will (eventually) open a 5nm fab in Arizona. Yes, it’s state-of-the-art today, but that won’t be the case when the fab opens in 2024. Still, it will almost certainly be the most advanced fab in the U.S. focused on contract manufacturing. Hopefully, Intel will surpass the fab’s capabilities when it opens.

Note, however, that it is important for the US to be different from Intel: while the latter cares about x86, the US needs an advanced general-purpose fab on US soil. In other words, Intel will always prioritize design, while the U.S. needs to prioritize manufacturing.

By the way, this is why I am more convinced today than in 2013 that Intel will make products for others. Companies may be forced to do so in order to obtain the required quantities to repay their investment, but companies will always put their designs on the front lines.

 Solution one: break up

That’s why Intel needed a split in two. Yes, integrating design and manufacturing has been Intel’s motto for decades, but that integration has become a direct obstacle to both businesses. Intel’s designs are hampered by the company’s manufacturing efforts, which have incentive problems.

The key to understanding chips is that they are designed to be much more profitable. For example, Nvidia’s gross margins are between 60% and 65%, while TSMC, which makes Nvidia chips, has gross margins closer to 50%. As mentioned above, Intel has traditionally had margins close to Nvidia’s due to integration, which is why Intel’s own chips will always be a priority for its manufacturing division. This will mean worse service to potential customers and less willingness to change the way it manufactures to accommodate customers and absorb best-of-breed suppliers (further reducing profits). There’s also a trust issue: Will a company competing with Intel be willing to share their designs with a competitor, especially if that competitor is incentivized to prioritize its own business?

The only way to solve this incentive problem is to spin off Intel’s manufacturing operations. Yes, it takes some time to build the customer service components needed to work with third parties, not to mention the huge library of IP building blocks that make it (relatively) easy to work with the likes of TSMC. But independent manufacturing companies will have the most powerful driving force behind this transition: the need to survive.

  Solution Two: Subsidies

It also opened the door for the United States to start pouring money into the field. Currently, it doesn’t make sense for the US to subsidize Intel. The company isn’t actually meeting American needs, and the company clearly has cultural and management issues that won’t be fixed once and for all.

This is why the federal subsidy program should serve as a purchase guarantee: the US will buy a quantity of US-produced 5nm processors at B price; US-produced 3nm processors C at a price of D; US-produced quantities of F The E number is 2 nm; and so on. Not only will this give the new Intel manufacturing branch some effort, but it will also incentivize other companies to invest. Maybe Global Foundries will get back in the game, or TSMC will build more fabs in the US. In a world of near free capital, maybe there will eventually be a startup willing to take the leap.

To be sure, the prescription simplifies the problem. There’s a lot more to chip manufacturing than just silicon. For example, packaging that was long ago moved overseas to reduce labor costs is now fully automated. The motivation to back off may be more immediate. Crucially, however, restoring American competitiveness, much less leadership, will take many years. The federal government can play a role, but so can Intel, not to seize the opportunity, but to accept the reality that IDM has accomplished its historic mission.

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UMTS base station receiver occupies only half an inch of board area

Under the premise of meeting the performance requirements of macrocell base stations, how high can the level of integration be achieved? The process technology still restricts that some important functional parts must be manufactured using special processes: GaAs and SiGe processes are used in the radio frequency (RF) field, high-speed ADCs use thin-line CMOS processes, and high-quality factor (High-Q) filters are not well implemented with semiconductor materials. In addition, the market demand for increased integration has not stopped.

Considering the above problems, Linear Technology decided to use system-in-package (SiP) technology to develop a board area of ​​about 1/2 square inch (just over 3cm2) receiver. The receiver has a 50Ω RF input, 50Ω LO input, ADC clock input, and digital ADC output at the boundaries of the receiver. This boundary is reserved for adding a low noise amplifier (LNA) and RF filtering for input, LO and clock generation, and digital processing of the digital output. In a 15mm x 22mm package is a signal chain using SiGe high frequency components, discrete passive filtering and a fine-line CMOS ADC.

This article will focus on LTM®9004 Micro Module (µModule®) receiver (a direct conversion receiver) for design analysis.

Design goals

The design target is a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) uplink Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) system, especially a medium coverage base station operating in Band I (see 3GPP TS25.104 V7.4.0 specification for details). For receivers, sensitivity is a major consideration, with an input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of -19.8dB/5MHz requiring a sensitivity of ≤-111dBm. This means that the effective noise floor at the receiver input must be ≤-158.2dBm/Hz.

Design Analysis: ZeroIF or direct conversion receiver

The LTM9004 is a direct conversion receiver that uses an I/Q demodulator, baseband amplifier and dual 14-bit 125Msps ADC (shown in Figure 1). The LTM9004-AC low-pass filter has a 0.2dB corner at 9.42MHz, allowing 4 WCDMA carriers. The LTM9004 can be used with an RF front end to form a complete UMTS band uplink receiver. The RF front end consists of a duplexer and one or more low noise amplifiers (LNAs) and ceramic bandpass filters. To minimize gain and phase imbalance, the baseband link uses a fixed-gain topology. Therefore, an RF variable gain amplifier (VGA) needs to be placed before the LTM9004. A typical performance example of such a front end is given here:

l Receive (Rx) frequency range: 1920MHz to 1980MHz

l RF gain: 15dB (max)

l Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Range: 20dB

l Noise figure: 1.6dB

l IIP2: +50dBm

l IIP3: 0dBm

l P1dB: -9.5dBm

l Suppression at 20MHz: 2dB

l Rejection on transmit (Tx) band: 96dB

picture1:existLTM9004 Direct Conversion Architecture Implemented in Micro Module Receivers

Taking into account the effective noise impact of the RF front end, the maximum allowable noise caused by the LTM9004 must be -142.2dBm/Hz. The typical input noise of the LTM9004 is -148.3dBm/Hz, and the calculated system sensitivity is -116.7dBm.

Typically, such receivers can benefit from DSP filtering of some digitized signal after the ADC. In this case, the DSP filter is assumed to be a 64-tap RRC low-pass filter with α = 0.22. In order to operate in the presence of co-channel interfering signals, the receiver must have sufficient dynamic range at maximum sensitivity. The UMTS specification calls for a maximum co-channel interference of -73dBm. Note that for a modulated signal with a 10dB crest factor, the input level of -1dBFS is -15.1dBm within the IF passband of the LTM9004. At the LTM9004 input, this corresponds to a digitized signal level of -53dBm, or -2.6dBFS.

When the RF automatic gain control (AGC) is set to the minimum gain, the receiver must be able to demodulate the maximum signal expected from the handset. This requirement ultimately sets the maximum signal size that the LTM9004 must provide at -1dBFS or less. The minimum path loss required in the specification is 53dB, and the average power of the handset is assumed to be +28dBm. Then at the receiver input, the maximum signal level is -25dBm. This is equivalent to a peak of -14.6dBFS.

Several blocking signals are specified in the UMTS system specification. In the presence of such signals, only a specified amount of desensitization is allowed, with a sensitivity index of -115dBm. The first of these is an adjacent channel 5MHz apart with a level of -42dBm. The peak value of the digitized signal level is -11.6dBFS. DSP post processing will add 51dB rejection, so this signal is equivalent to a -93dBm interferer at the receiver input. The final sensitivity is -112.8dBm.

Also, the receiver must compete with a -35dBm interferer channel ≥10MHz apart. The IF rejection of the μModule receiver will attenuate this interfering channel to a digitized signal level equivalent to -6.6dBFS peak. After DSP post-processing, it is equivalent to -89.5dBm at the receiver input, resulting in a final sensitivity of -109.2dBm.

In addition, out-of-band blocking signals must also be considered, but these out-of-band blocking signals are at the same level as the in-band blocking signals already discussed.

In all these cases, the -1dBFS typical input level of the LTM9004 is well above the maximum expected signal level. Note that the crest factor of the modulated channel will be around 10dB ~ 12dB, so at the output of the LTM9004, the largest of them will reach a peak power of around 6.5dBFS.

The largest blocking signal is a -15dBm continuous wave (CW) tone (≥20MHz beyond the receive band edge). The RF front end will provide 37dB rejection of this tone, so it will be -32dBm when it appears at the input of the LTM9004. At this time, the signal of this level is still not allowed to reduce the sensitivity of the baseband μModule receiver. The equivalent digitized level peak is only -41.6dBFS, so there is no effect on sensitivity.

Another source of unwanted interfering signal power comes from transmitter leakage. Because this is an FDD application, the receiver described here will be coupled with a transmitter operating simultaneously. The output level of this transmitter is assumed to be ≤+38dBm, while the “transmit to receive” isolation is 95dB. The leakage present at the input of the LTM9004 is then -31.5dBm with an offset of at least 130MHz relative to the received signal. The equivalent digitized level peak is only -76.6dBFS, so there is no loss of sensitivity.

One challenge of direct conversion architectures is second-order linearity. Non-ideal second-order linearity will allow any desired or undesired signal to enter, which will induce DC offset or pseudo-random noise on the baseband. If this pseudorandom noise is close to the noise level of the receiver, those blocking signals discussed in detail above will reduce sensitivity. In all cases where these blocking signals are present, system specifications allow for a reduction in sensitivity. Blocking the channel at -35dBm reduces the sensitivity to -105dBm, as specified by the system specification. As we saw above, this blocking signal constitutes a -15dBm interferer at the receiver input. The second-order distortion produced by the LTM9004 input is approximately 16dB lower than thermal noise, resulting in a predicted sensitivity of -116.6dBm.

A CW blocking signal of -15dBm will also cause a second order component; in this case this component is a DC offset. DC offset is undesirable because it reduces the maximum signal that the A/D converter can handle. A surefire way to mitigate the effects of DC offset is to ensure that the second-order linearity of the baseband μModule receiver is sufficiently high. At the input of the ADC, the predicted DC offset due to this signal is

Note that transmitter leakage is not included in the system specification. Therefore, the decrease in sensitivity due to this signal must be kept to a minimum. The output level of the transmitter is assumed to be ≤ +38dBm, while the “transmit-to-receive” isolation is 95dB. The loss of sensitivity due to the second order distortion produced in the LTM9004 will be

There is only one requirement in the specification for third-order linearity. This is in the presence of two interfering signals and the sensitivity must not drop below -115dBm. The two interfering signals are a CW tone and a WCDMA channel, both of which are -48dBm. These interference signals all appear at the input of the LTM9004 with a magnitude of -28dBm. Their frequencies are 10MHz and 20MHz apart from the desired channel, so the third-order intermodulation products will be at baseband. At this time, this component still appears in the form of pseudo-random noise, thus reducing the signal-to-noise ratio. The third-order distortion produced in the LTM9004 is approximately 20dB lower than the thermal noise floor, with an expected sensitivity drop of

Measuring performance

Using the evaluation board shown in Figure 2, the LTM9004-AC achieved excellent test results (shown in Figures 3 and 4). The test setup includes two Rohde & SchwarzSMA 100A signal generators for RF and LO and a Rohde & Schwarz SMY 01 generator for ADC clock and TTE embedded filter.

picture2: minimal external circuitry required to design a complete receiver

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