The occasional abnormal signal that is a headache, the oscilloscope can help you record it!

[Introduction]It is definitely unrealistic to stare at the oscilloscope screen for a long time to observe the occasional abnormal signal that is a headache. So, what are the efficient ways to capture such signals? Segmented storage, application born.

What is segmented storage

The segmented storage is triggered multiple times during the acquisition process, and the data sampled for each trigger is stored in a small storage that divides the storage space into segments.Oscilloscope trigger fills one segment at a time, idle signals or signals between segments are not interestingThe occasional abnormal signal that is a headache, the oscilloscope can help you record it!Interesting parts are not captured and stored.

The principle is shown in the figure below: the total storage depth is divided into n segments, the first segment is used for Display, and the second segment starts to store, that is, the data collected when the first trigger occurs is stored in the second segment storage space, when the After the second segment storage space is full, end the first trigger, wait for the second trigger, and store the data in the third segment storage space after triggering, and so on.

Segmented storage structure diagram

If the total storage depth of the oscilloscope is 512Mpts, the calculation formula of segment allocation is as follows:

N=512*1024*1024/[The current storage capacity is rounded to the power of 2n]-1

How to set up segmented storage

The maximum storage of ZDS5000 series oscilloscope is 512Mpts, while maintaining the sampling rate of 4GSa/s, it supports segmented storage range: 1~524287 segments. Click[Seg]by adjusting the time base gear, in the state of 560Kpts storage depth, it will be divided into 255 segments for storage and acquisition, as shown in the figure below.

Staging storage settings

Set the trigger mode to[Normal]adjust the trigger level to an appropriate position, and wait for a small probability abnormal signal to arrive.

Trigger setting

By touching the probe with your finger, you can simulate the occurrence of a small probability abnormal signal. After the segment storage is completed, click[Stop]click[Current Segment]and you can view all segment storage by rotating the knob A/B, as shown in Figure 20.4. Waveform stored for segment 45.

segmented storage results

Segmented storage applications

1. Low duty cycle pulse or burst signal – there is a long idle time between signals. In many cases, even if there is a large storage, it is difficult to achieve the desired acquisition time by reducing the sampling rate. , and segmented storage can be done well.

Low duty cycle pulse signal

2. Serial bus analysis – The serial bus is transmitted in the form of data packets, and the idle time between packets will occupy the precious storage resources of the oscilloscope. With segmented storage, the oscilloscope can only collect data packets and not sample in idle time. . While maintaining a high sampling rate, more data packets can be collected to facilitate decoding and analysis.

Bus analysis

Example application: 8-hour oscillation detection test

Take the ZDS5000 series oscilloscope to test the connector for vibration test as an example. During the whole test process, monitor the number of possible secondary failure areas of the connector, and then check whether the product is qualified.

1. Test requirements

The entire vibration test lasts 8 hours. During the whole process, the connector may have 0 to dozens of failures. The duration is more than 300ns, and the amplitude is uncertain (normally, the level is 1V).

2. Difficulties in testing

● The duration of the vibration test is 8 hours, and the oscilloscope is difficult to record waves based on a large time base, and the sampling rate is not enough;

● The vibration laboratory has large noise interference, and the peak waveform and clutter during failure are mixed together, so it is not easy to test the signal in the failure area.

Test waveform

For the above test problems, the segmented storage function of the ZDS5000 series oscilloscope provides a good solution.

First, according to the characteristics of the abnormal signal, set the trigger conditions for the oscilloscope to capture (including trigger level, trigger mode, time base, segment storage, number of segments, etc.), conduct 8-hour vibration test monitoring, and capture the abnormal situation as shown in the figure shown:

exception catch

segmented storage

As shown in the figure, in the 8-hour test period, a total of 380,404 abnormal waveforms were captured. The above picture shows the abnormal situation and signal characteristics of the failure area of ​​the 281st segment. The current sampling rate is still 4GSa/s.

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Remote Code Execution Vulnerability in Schneider Electric Industrial Equipment

A critical and unpatched remote code execution vulnerability in Schneider Electric’s programmable logic controllers (PLCs) could allow attackers to take control of its various industrial systems, Armis security researchers have warned.

Schneider Electric’s line of Modicon controllers was one of the first PLC products on the market, and its function was to connect industrial equipment, from oil and gas pipelines to manufacturing systems and water purification facilities, into a network. But the study found a more serious vulnerability in the product: that could allow anyone to take control of the device by using hidden commands to bypass authentication.

“Armis researchers discovered that these commands can be used to take over a PLC and gain native code execution on the device that can be used to change the operation of the PLC while hiding changes from the engineering workstation that manages the PLC. This attack is an unidentified attack. An authenticated attack requires only network access to the target PLC,” said the information security analyst.

The vulnerability, dubbed “ModiPwn,” is claimed by Schneider Electric to be patched. Armis researchers have found that these patches only work if an app password is set, and we’ve found multiple ways to bypass the password, allowing everyone to open it again, even on the latest software versions this loophole.

To make matters worse, the vulnerability, originally classified as causing a denial of service (DoS) attack, was found to allow remote code execution — meaning an unauthenticated attacker could take full control of the PLC and, in turn, any software it uses. Industrial equipment.

Schneider Electric confirmed the vulnerabilities and promised to release a patch by the end of the year. However, for Schneider Electric customers, even with the patch installed, the devices need to be further verified to be safe.

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In the digital transformation of the financial services industry, low-code deserves attention

Author: Richard Eastley Although low-code is currently surging in the market, and although a number of domestic manufacturers have promoted the concept of low-code on a large scale since 2019, in actual development cases, many companies are still taking the “old way”, There is no shortage of companies in the industry that spend years and millions of dollars and finally complete only one product solution. Many financial institutions rely on old systems and traditional development methods for many years, which leads to a series of problems, such as dependence on technology outsourcing companies, gaps between business teams and IT teams, project delays, and so on.

Author: Richard Eastley

Although low-code is currently surging in the market, and although many domestic manufacturers have promoted the concept of low-code on a large scale since 2019, in actual development cases, many companies are still taking the “old way”, and many companies in the industry spend a few An enterprise that finally completes only one product solution after spending millions of dollars a year. Many financial institutions rely on old systems and traditional development methods for many years, which leads to a series of problems, such as dependence on technology outsourcing companies, gaps between business teams and IT teams, project delays, and so on.

The emergence of low-code development platforms has allowed financial institutions to develop applications, websites, user interfaces and other digital experiences 8-10 times faster.
Siemens Low Code is a high-productivity application development platform that turns development into a highly abstracted and automated visual process that helps companies rapidly build and continuously optimize mobile and web applications at scale. The Siemens low-code platform is designed to accelerate enterprise-class application delivery throughout the application development lifecycle from ideation to deployment and operation.

Create differentiation for your business

Standardized software is often used to solve a specific common problem, so there is a good chance that competitors in the industry are using similar solutions. In contrast, Siemens Low-Code is not designed to solve a specific problem, it is a unique low-code rapid application platform for development and delivery, enabling the entire application from ideation and development to deployment and operation Lifecycle provides a complete set of integrated tools. In an increasingly converging market environment, financial institutions can differentiate themselves by providing customers with low-code Siemens services.

Everyone can participate in application development

In the banking industry, especially smaller regional banks, are looking to maximize digital transformation on a limited budget. Since many banking institutions do not have IT DNA, but their development teams still need to face high-demand tasks such as automation, updating various applications, developing new applications, and replacing legacy systems, project rework and delays are even more common.

Siemens Low Code is unique in providing both no-code (visual modeling) and low-code (highly scalable, integrated tools to support collaborative work across functional teams) on a single platform. Through the platform’s collaborative and visual development capabilities, Siemens Low Code enables people across all functions to participate in the creation of applications that deliver sustainable business value. In other words, business and IT teams can collaborate on a single platform and focus on achieving the same goals, building applications together that solve real business problems.

Low-code lowers the threshold for development

In order to make it easy for enterprises to start their low-code development work, Siemens Low-Code continues to release new solution templates. These templates embody Siemens’ low-code experience in the financial industry for many years and help enterprises quickly get started with low-code development. These include:

• Customer Guidance: Turn the crucial initial user relationship building process into a relaxed and pleasant experience;
• Native banking APP: uses biometric technology to achieve smarter user authentication, and provides chatbot function to provide users with 24/7 support;
• Loan origination: Provide users with a convenient and fast loan application process, adding certain key parameters to automatically approve or reject the loan.

The above functions can be connected with the core system of the enterprise, and can be modified according to the actual workflow and brand tone to make it more personalized. With the support of these templates, enterprises can launch new functions in just a few weeks, respond quickly to new needs of users, and greatly improve customer experience. For more details, please click to watch the video.

Experience for a digital future

Undoubtedly, it is the pursuit of financial institutions to bring a better user and communication experience to users. However, if the traditional development method is used, limited by third-party technology and development costs, it may not be able to bring the ideal and beautiful experience to users; on the other hand, if the customized platform can quickly meet some of the needs of customers, it cannot Offer a more personalized service to differentiate.

If companies are still taking a wait-and-see attitude towards low-code development. Siemens Low-Code suggests that businesses can choose a small project as a touchstone to test low-code’s ability to quickly create solutions. This project doesn’t need to be perfect, it just needs to play a key role and demonstrate its key value in the development phase. Plus, IT teams can grab every link that can be filled and tested with low-code.

Mendix hopes that more and more financial institutions can accelerate the layout of the digital development blueprint through Siemens low-code, and stand at the forefront of digital transformation.

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Mercedes-Benz’s new C-Class is officially released. Do you like it?

According to previous reports, Mercedes-Benz will release a new car at 9:00 on the 23rd. As scheduled, at 9 p.m. today, the new Mercedes-Benz C-Class was officially released. The new Mercedes-Benz C-Class, in addition to the exterior has undergone a major innovation, the interior has undergone earth-shaking changes, and is fully close to the new Mercedes-Benz S-Class. At the same time, the new car is equipped with the second-generation MBUX intelligent human-computer interaction system, which brings a more luxurious and technological experience in the form of a digital luxury cockpit.

Judging from the new C-Class official map, the new car’s air intake grille has not changed much, but the new car’s fog lamp grille has undergone a lot of innovation, using an oval shape, which looks very atmospheric. The shape of the headlights and taillights are also more slender, which strengthens the elegant and sporty characteristics of Mercedes-Benz, and the appearance is better. In the overall design of the appearance, the new C-class adopts the design language of the S-class. Previously, because the appearance of the new S-Class was too “impact” to car fans and friends, many car fans and friends directly called the ugliest “S-Class”. However, after the design language of the S-class was devolved to the C-class, the attitude of car fans and friends made a 180-degree turn, and praised the appearance and interior design of the new C-class. There are many highlights, which have indeed been praised by many people. It has to be said that Mercedes-Benz has profound experience in the aesthetic control ability of consumers. Compared with the appearance, the interior changes of the new Mercedes-Benz C-Class can be said to be earth-shaking. The new car has abandoned the dual-screen large screen of the current model, and instead adopts the central control inclined vertical screen design of the new S-Class. The air-conditioning outlet is Mercedes-Benz’s signature round shape. In the vehicle-machine system, the new car is also equipped with the second-generation MBUX intelligent human-computer interaction system of the new S-Class sedan, and the interactively upgraded “mind-reading voice assistant” can explain the functions of the vehicle.

In terms of power, the new C-Class brings a variety of options covering gasoline and diesel engines, 48-volt micro-hybrid and plug-in hybrid. The power is quite powerful. The gasoline version is equipped with the M254 four-cylinder engine and the second-generation 48V ISG intelligent motor, which can provide a maximum torque of 15kW and 200N m. Among them, the 1.5T engine has two power outputs, the maximum power is 125+15kW and 150+15kW respectively, and the peak torque is 250N m and 300N m respectively. The high power level reflects the excellent engine manufacturing skills of Mercedes-Benz. The world premiere of the new Mercedes-Benz C-Class sedan and C-Class wagon. As the first Mercedes-Benz car series to achieve full electrification drive, it is really sincere. The new C-Class brings a wealth of electrified power options covering gasoline and diesel engines, 48-volt micro-hybrid and plug-in hybrid. . The new C-Class with the fourth-generation plug-in hybrid technology will also be unveiled soon. We can look forward to it. It is equipped with a permanent magnet synchronous motor with a maximum power of 95 kW and a maximum torque of 440 Nm and a capacity of 25.4 With a kWh battery, the pure electric cruising range can reach about 100 kilometers (WLTP standard).

The model released this time uses a sports kit version, and the car will also provide an AMG Line version and a luxury version developed for the domestic market. The grille of the new car and the front surround show a trapezoidal shape. The headlights on both sides are also brand-new. The hook-shaped daytime running lights inside also highlight its youthful positioning. Such a design is definitely a departure from the previous Mercedes-Benz. Yes, this is very different from before. The interior of the car is basically a reduced version of the S-Class, and the 11.9-inch OLED touch screen comes into view, matching the second-generation MBUX in-vehicle system. Of course, if you buy a low-end version, the size of the screen will vary. The air conditioner button is added below, so it’s better to add money to the high-end equipment, are you excited?

In general, the new Mercedes-Benz C-Class has undergone a lot of improvement in terms of exterior and interior design, as well as overall product strength, and the effect is gratifying. And the whole car is also close to the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, a small “S-Class”. At present, the official guide price of the Mercedes-Benz C-Class currently on sale in China is 307,800-474,800 yuan, but the market terminal has a preferential space of nearly 35,000 yuan, which means that the price is quite favorable. The new Mercedes-Benz C-Class is expected to make its domestic debut at the 2021 Shanghai Auto Show, which will open in April. It will then be domestically produced by Beijing Benz and is expected to go on sale within the year. The price is expected to be similar to the current model. At that time, more than 300,000 yuan can buy a small “Mercedes-Benz S-Class”, will you be excited?

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Avnet Introduces MaaXBoard Nano Single Board Computer

Beijing, China, February 26, 2021 – Avnet (NASDAQ: AVT), a leading global provider of technology solutions, announced the MaaxBoard Nano single-board computer designed to help customers speed time-to-market and reduce development costs. The introduction of this production-ready single-board computer further expands Avnet’s hardware product lineup. The MaaxBoard Nano single-board computer is powered by NXP’s i.MX 8M Nano processor for embedded computing and edge intelligence-driven IoT applications. It has 4 built-in microphones and 1 audio interface, which can provide high-quality audio output. The product has also passed the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) certification, EU CE certification and RoHS certification. MaaxBoard Nano provides more flexibility for product design and testing, allowing users to focus more on software development and design during product development.

MaaXBoard Nano is fully configured to support and create operating systems based on Linux, Android or other OS. The platform integrates a variety of onboard peripherals, including 1GB of DDR4 memory, 1 Gigabit Ethernet port, 4 USB 2.0 host ports, MIPI-DSI interface, WiFi, Bluetooth, MicroSD card slot, 4 onboard Microphone and 1 audio interface. Expansion connectors compatible with the Raspberry Pi Expansion Board (HAT) also provide UART, SPI, I2C and GPIO interfaces.

“Our i.MX 8M Nano single-board computer is inexpensive,” said Jim Beneke, vice president of products and emerging technologies at Avnet. “With this hardware solution, developers can focus on designing the software. Maaxboard Nano is Avnet’s NXP-based The latest addition to the MaaXBoard series of single-board computers from E-Board, when used with Avnet’s IoTConnect platform, can be further expanded and is ideal for applications such as artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, industrial automation, multimedia and audio.”

Avnet’s IoTConnect platform is cloud-based and highly scalable, addressing common industry needs and challenges. With a standardized approach to effectively harnessing the Internet of Things, developers can create intelligent applications and solutions on the platform, further extend functionality, deliver best practices, and truly enable data-driven decision-making. IoTConnect platform uses Microsoft’s enterprise-grade Azure hybrid cloud computing service, which is very secure and reliable, and can support seamless data distribution and data analysis across cloud and local systems.

The MaaXBoard Nano single-board computer designed by Avnet is equipped with NXP’s i.MX 8 series applications processors. Based on Arm® Cortex®-A53 and Cortex-M4 cores, NXP’s i.MX 8 series applications processors provide industry-leading audio, voice and video processing for consumer-grade home audio, industrial-grade building automation and embedded computer and other applications.

The MaaxBoard Nano is now available in the Americas, Europe and China for $80.95 (about 523.35 RMB).

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ASML makes efforts, EUV lithography will usher in a major upgrade

Beginning in 2019, fabs began to use extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to a limited extent for high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of chips. At that time, ASML’s Twinscan NXE series lithography machines were able to meet the basic production needs of customers, but the entire EUV ecosystem was not ready for everything. One of the factors affecting EUV was the lack of protective films for photomasks (protective pellicles for photomasks), which limits the use of EUV tools and affects yield.

Fortunately, thanks to the recent introduction of production-ready EUV fenders, the pellicle situation has finally improved, and the situation is expected to improve over the next few years.


Having made great strides in recent years with its Twinscan NXE EUV lithography tool, ASML has improved the light source performance, availability time and productivity of EUV lithography machines. Its industry peers have also done a lot of work to enable high-volume manufacturing (HVM) using EUV equipment. Nonetheless, the EUV ecosystem still needs further development. One of the most notorious challenges the semiconductor supply chain faces with EUV is the development of pellicles, which were not available two years ago, which is why TSMC and Samsung Foundry had to invent how to use them Method for EUV scanner without protective film.


A 16nm TSMC Pellicle With Reticle

Pellicle protects 6 x 6 inch photomasks (reticles) during the chip production process by isolating them from particles that may fall on their surfaces, which could otherwise damage them during the process or cause damage during production cause defects to the wafer. Each EUV tool reticle costs $300,000, so chipmakers are desperate to find new ways to protect their wafers from particles and even the EUV radiation itself, as it reduces costs. At the same time, it may be even more important to reduce the risk associated with yields.

Meanwhile, the demand for pellicles varies according to the manufacturer and the type of photomask used. Known for its large CPU dies, Intel tends to use a single die, meaning that just one mask defect introduced by a particle automatically kills the entire die. At the same time, if a 25-die photomask is used, the particle adder will “only” result in a 4% reduction in yield (one dead die), which is why for smaller chips and multi-die photomasks, no guards need to be used The reason why the pellicles can get away with it.

The industry started developing protective films for EUV tools after learning that no one can guarantee that the ultra-complex EUV scanners are 100% free of harmful particles, which is relatively late, which is why they are not yet ready in 2019 reason.

Photomask pods for use with deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography equipment are common and inexpensive. In contrast, since EUV photomasks are different from DUV photomasks (EUV masks are essentially 250 to 350 nm thick stacks with 40 to 50 alternating layers of silicon and molybdenum on the substrate), Therefore, the protective film of this kind of marking is also very different. In particular, EUV light has a very short wavelength, which means its protective film has many requirements, making it difficult and expensive to produce. The EUV pellicle must be very thin, should not affect the reflective properties of the reticle, should have high transmittance (the higher the transmittance, the higher the productivity of the scanner), should maintain high EUV power levels and withstand extreme temperatures ( from 600°C to 1,000°C in the future).

“Most materials are very absorptive at the 13.5nm EUV wavelength, and even with most EUV-transparent materials chosen, the films would have to be very thin to achieve 90 percent transmission,” said IMEC’s ​​Emily Gallagher. Such films often do not maintain sufficient strength to stand alone at the required dimensions. In addition, the EUV scanner environment is incompatible with many materials, subjecting the pellicle to the action of a pump-exhaust cycle.”

According to SemiEngineering, to date, a number of EUV protective film options have emerged including:

ASML launched its first EUV pellicle in 2019 and licensed the technology to Mitsui Chemicals, which plans to start volume sales in the second quarter of 2021. ASML has since improved the protective film;

Imec has published test results of its carbon nanotube-based pellicle;

Graphene Square, Freudenberg Sealing Technologies (FST) and some universities are developing their own protective films;

So far, only ASML has managed to create a commercially viable protective film for a practical EUV tool. ASML’s pellicle is based on polysilicon with a thickness of 50 nm. Back in 2016, they demonstrated a 78% transmission rate on a simulated 175W light source. Currently, ASML can sell protective films with 88% transmittance. Soon, Mitsui will start supplying such protective films in large quantities.

The latest prototype from ASML, made of metal silicide, demonstrated 90.6% transmittance, 0.2% non-uniformity, and less than 0.005% reflectance under a 400W light source.

“This upgrade supports our roadmap, which will eventually enable power supplies up to 400 watts,” Raymond Maas, ASML’s product manager for pellicle films, told Bits & “At that power level, the film is heated to 600°C. , and polysilicon can’t afford it.”

In comparison, Imec’s prototype pellicle had a transmittance of 97.7 percent. In fact, in the long run, when more advanced light sources can be used, more complex pellicles will be required, and this is where Imec’s carbon nanotube-based pellicles will come into play.

“Few materials have the potential for high EUV transmittance over 90%, and even fewer are compatible with EUV powers over 600W at the same time. Also, the pellicle must be strong enough to hang over a large area reticle (? 110mm x 140mm),” said researcher Joost Bekaert from Imec.

Unfortunately, it’s unclear when Imec’s carbon nanotube-based shield will be ready.

Now, TSMC and Samsung Foundry have invented a way to use EUV lithography tools to produce multi-die masks for smaller chips without the need for a pellicle, but this approach is risky as any particle additives may become a defect that leads to a decrease in yield. Furthermore, such an approach is risky for larger chips and single-die photomasks, so pellicles are critical for the fabrication of large dies using EUV tools. That said, regardless of the size of the photomask, pellicles are required to increase EUV yield and reduce risk across the field.

Overall, the use and improvement of EUV protective film will be a gradual process. The initial pellicle developed and manufactured by ASML, and soon to be manufactured by Mitsui, is adequate for some of today’s needs, but its transmission levels still have room for improvement, as evidenced by next-generation prototypes from ASML and Imec. Since these machines will have more powerful light sources, better protective films will also be needed for future scanners. However, because such protective films have many indisputable advantages, they will be used by chipmakers because they can help increase yield even at the cost of some productivity.


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FORESEE: Focus on high-end storage innovation and be an enabler of new data center infrastructure

Stimulated by the continuous increase in relevant policies and the accelerated development of the digital economy, data centers, as computing power platforms that carry storage data, transmit data, and carry new-generation digital applications such as artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and blockchain, have become supportive An intelligent base for “cloud, data, and wisdom” in various industries. At the same time, with the gradual implementation of application scenarios such as the Industrial Internet of Things, Internet of Everything, and autonomous driving, and the accelerated pace of digital transformation in various industries, new high requirements for data centers have become inevitable.

In the context of the “new infrastructure” era, the importance of storage systems is increasing day by day

For application scenarios such as government and enterprise smart terminals, industrial Internet of Things, and autonomous driving that are undergoing digital transformation, platform systems such as ERP, CRM, and cloud storage need to achieve uninterrupted normal operation on the basis of storing massive amounts of data, so as to ensure that The normal conduct of day-to-day business. This means that the storage system associated with the data center must have data error correction capability, data protection capability, capacity expansion capability and scalability. Therefore, storage products must also “keep with the times” to keep evolving and iterating.

Driven by innovation, FORESEE continues to provide high-quality storage solutions

FORESEE, a technology-based storage brand from Longsys, focuses on the industry storage field. Relying on long-term continuous R&D investment and technological breakthroughs, it continues to climb to the top of storage, and has successively launched enterprise-level DDR4 R-DIMM, S802 SATA SSD and other products. Among them, the enterprise-level DDR4 R-DIMM memory module adopts 2Rank 72bit architecture, and processes gold fingers with the industry’s highest standard of 30u”. In terms of performance, this product can reach 3200Mhz frequency, has CL19-19-19-19, CL22-22 -22-22 Two kinds of stable and low timing.Excellent performance, which can provide better performance and more stable experience for the data center while meeting the working requirements of the data center.

The S802 SATA SSD uses the original 3D TLC flash memory medium, DRAM-base, and capacitor array. Among them, the original 3D TLC flash media can make its sequential read and write speed reach 550MB/s / 500MB/s, and the random read and write speed can reach 85K/75K, which can bring high-quality performance experience to the data center; The company’s rigorous reliability test ensures that the mean time between failures of the S802 SATA SSD reaches 2 million hours. It is worth mentioning that in terms of hardware technology, the product has newly added power-off protection technology, which can continue to supply stable power supply at the moment of power failure. The cached data and key data stored in the SSD are saved in time to prevent the loss and damage of key data under abnormal conditions, and to escort the safety of data and the normal progress of work. Whether it is enterprise-level or industrial-level storage products, FORESEE has reached the mainstream level in the industry and can meet the different storage requirements of industry and consumer products.

Over the past 22 years, Longsys has developed abundant upstream and downstream resources in the supply chain by relying on its strong innovation capabilities, and has in-depth cooperation with many top semiconductor chip manufacturers. The core competitiveness of equipment and self-developed firmware has steadily improved its position in the storage market. Since the company established the FORESEE brand in 2011, it has devoted itself to the R&D and innovation of industry-level storage products. It has successively established industrial and R&D bases in Shanghai and Zhongshan, and established embedded storage (including industrial storage), industrial storage It has 4 product lines including high-level memory cards, solid-state drives and memory modules. At the same time, FORESEE fully implements the quality management system for all products in the whole line, covering five fields including “resource management process, project quality management, production quality management, supplier quality management, and customer quality management”, and strictly controls every aspect of the product life cycle. It ensures supply chain delivery for industry customers and can provide professional after-sales service.

With the improvement of “new infrastructure” and the completion of the digital transformation of various industries and fields in society, the storage system as the core of the data center will surely usher in a broader space for development. It is foreseeable that FORESEE’s strategy of driving the development of the storage industry with innovative technologies will not only provide more high-quality, stable and reliable storage solutions for the data centers of government and enterprise institutions in the professional market, but also provide more high-quality, stable and reliable storage solutions in the industrial-grade and vehicle-grade markets. shine.

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Chinese companies are aggressively buying global semiconductor equipment!

According to data released by SEMI, the purchase amount of semiconductor manufacturing equipment in mainland China in the first quarter was 5.96 billion US dollars, a year-on-year increase of 70%, second only to South Korea’s 7.31 billion US dollars. As the shortage of cores continues to intensify competition in the global semiconductor industry, China’s procurement of equipment is gradually increasing.

BusinessKorea pointed out that Chinese companies are aggressively buying semiconductor manufacturing equipment around the world.

U.S. sanctions against Chinese companies cannot curb China’s determination to develop the semiconductor industry. Even if China cannot produce cutting-edge semiconductors, it is trying to gain priority in areas such as automotive semiconductors, where supply shortages are growing.

Korean media pointed out that Chinese semiconductor companies are currently purchasing equipment needed for chip production lines in advance. An industry source said, “Chinese semiconductor companies have purchased five to six additional equipment in addition to the equipment they really need.” Another source said that “some companies have doubled their orders.”

In the first quarter of this year, China became the largest buyer of semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the U.S. and Japan, respectively. 32% of Lam Research’s first-quarter sales came from Chinese companies. Although the figure includes sales by non-Chinese companies such as Samsung Electronics and SK Hynix’s factories in China, industry experts believe that equipment purchases by local Chinese companies are also soaring. It is reported that in order to minimize the impact of U.S. sanctions, SMIC also specifically contacted South Korean semiconductor equipment manufacturers.

Chip manufacturing has higher requirements for front-end equipment, but 60% to 70% of this market is dominated by American and Japanese companies. On another level, the US ban is also generating demand for domestic equipment.

In addition, Chinese companies are snapping up semiconductor equipment, and chipmakers such as Samsung Electronics and SK Hynix are continuing to pay attention. Two South Korean companies are planning to expand production and build new fabs, and ensuring sufficient semiconductor manufacturing equipment will be key.


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Design of Portable Navigation System Using GPS Module and MSP430 Series

GPS is the abbreviation of Global Positioning System, that is, the global positioning system. Its purpose is to accurately locate and monitor ground and air targets on a global scale. With the increasing application of global spatial positioning information, the full-time, all-weather, high-precision positioning services provided by GPS will bring benefits to space technology, geophysics, geodetic mapping, remote sensing technology, traffic scheduling, military operations and people’s daily life. great changes and far-reaching effects.

1 Introduction to GPS system

GPS is the abbreviation of Global Positioning System, that is, the global positioning system. Its purpose is to accurately locate and monitor ground and air targets on a global scale. With the increasing application of global spatial positioning information, the full-time, all-weather, high-precision positioning services provided by GPS will bring benefits to space technology, geophysics, geodetic mapping, remote sensing technology, traffic scheduling, military operations and people’s daily life. great changes and far-reaching effects.

Current civilian GPS devices include surveying and navigational types. Among them, the accuracy of measurement products can reach the meter level or even millimeter level, but at least two sets (sets) are required to meet the design accuracy requirements, and their internal structure is complex, and the cost of a single machine is generally tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands, suitable for professional high-precision measurement Environmental use; navigation products, because their users do not have high requirements for accuracy, generally tens of meters, so the internal hardware of the machine is relatively simple, only one can complete the navigation work, and its price is relatively low, so it is more Popularize and promote value.

GPS system generally consists of three parts: ground control station, navigation satellite and user receiver. There are at least 24 navigation satellites, evenly distributed in 6 polar orbits, with an included angle of 60 degrees and an average height of 20,200 kilometers from the ground, orbiting the Earth every 12 star hours.

The main task of the GPS signal receiver is to capture the signals of the satellites to be measured selected by a certain satellite altitude cut-off angle, track the operation of these satellites, and at the same time transform, amplify and process the received GPS signals in order to measure the GPS signals. From the propagation time of the satellite to the receiver antenna, the navigation message sent by the GPS satellite is deciphered, and finally the three-dimensional position, position, and even the three-dimensional speed and time of the station appearing in real time are calculated.

In static positioning, the GPS receiver is fixed in the process of capturing and tracking GPS satellites. The receiver measures the propagation time of the GPS signal with high precision, and uses the known position of the GPS satellite in orbit to calculate the position of the receiver antenna. three-dimensional coordinates. The dynamic positioning is to use a GPS receiver to determine the trajectory of a moving object. The moving object where the GPS signal receiver is located is called a carrier (such as a ship in flight, an airplane in the air, a walking vehicle, etc.). Since the GPS receiver antenna on the carrier will move relative to the earth in the process of tracking GPS satellites, the receiver can measure the state parameters (instant three-dimensional position and three-dimensional speed) of the moving carrier in real time with GPS signals.

The receiver hardware, onboard software and post-processing software package for GPS data constitute a complete GPS user equipment. The structure of the GPS receiver is divided into two parts: the antenna unit and the receiving unit. For the geodetic receiver, the two units are generally divided into two independent parts. When observing, the antenna unit is placed on the station, and the receiving unit is placed at an appropriate place near the station, and the two are connected by cables. into a whole machine. In fact, it is also possible to make the antenna unit and the receiving unit as a whole and place it on the station during observation.

GPS receivers generally use batteries as power sources, and use two kinds of DC power sources inside and outside the machine at the same time. The purpose of setting the internal battery is to change the external battery without interruption of continuous observation. In the process of using the external battery, the internal battery is automatically charged. After shutdown, the internal battery powers the RAM memory to prevent data loss.

2 Introduction to TU-30 GPS Module

The TU-30 module is a GPS product of Rockwell Corporation in the United States. It is characterized by small size, simple interface and good reliability. The organizational structure of the module is a small system of single-chip microcomputer for receiving GPS signals. The GPS signal receiving part is composed of a chip designed and developed by Rockwell and its peripheral circuits. Its control core is a DSP processor, which has strong data operation and processing capabilities, and has two serial ports and clock output; the peripheral circuit has a real-time clock, and has E2PROM (saving important parameters), SRAM, ROM, etc. The memory can store and exchange relevant important information data; in addition, there is also a DGPS interface. The satellite acquisition start mode of this module is divided into 4 modes: hot start mode, initial start mode, cold start mode, freeze start mode; while the navigation mode has 3 modes: 3D mode, 2D mode and DG-PS mode. Figure 1 shows the hardware structure of the module.

The TU-30 GPS module has an antenna interface, which can be connected to the antenna with a coaxial cable, and the antenna can be extended by 30 meters. In addition, it also has a 20Pin application interface, which can be easily interfaced with devices such as single-chip microcomputers and PCs.

Table 1 Definition of 20-pin interface in the module of TU-30 GPS

3 Serial data interface specification of GPS module

The key to the application of the GPS module lies in the formulation of the serial communication protocol, that is, the relevant input and output protocol format of the module. It mainly includes data types and information formats, among which the data types mainly include binary information and NMEA national marine electronics society data information. These two types of information can communicate with the GPS receiver through the serial port. Here we focus on the binary information word format and word structure of TU-30. The TU-30 has a transmission rate of 9600bps, no parity, 8 data bits, and 1 stop bit. The binary information word format includes information header, header check, data, data check and so on.

Each message in TU-30 has headers, but not necessarily data, and responses and requests for messages are done in the form of headers. The binary header usually consists of the following five words:

Word1: 1000 0001 1111 1111;
Word2: information ID;
Word3: data subcount;
Word4: answer/no answer;
Word5: Header check.
The calculation formula of the header check is:

In general, binary information data consists of the following 4 words:

Word6: trigger;
word7: interval;
word8: offset;
Word9: Data verification.
The calculation formula of the header check is:

Each word in the TU-30 is 16 bits, and there are unsigned integers and signed integers. According to the word length, it can be divided into single precision (16bit), double precision (32bit) and triple precision (48bit). It is 0 when the reserved bit is input, and can be 0 or 1 when the bit field flag bit is independently defined.

The output information in TU-30 is as follows:

Information location status output (longitude, latitude, time, altitude, etc.);
The message ID is 1000, and the message length is 55 characters;
ECEF status output: message ID is 1001, message length is 54 words;
The ID of the channel summary information is 1002, and the length of the information is 51 words;
The channel measurement information ID is 1007, and the information length is 154 words;

User set output: message ID is 1012, message length is 22 words;
Built-in test result: message ID is 1100, message length is 20 words;
Measurement time stamp: message ID is 1102, message length is 253 words;
Serial communication parameters: message ID is 1130, message length is 21 words;
EEPROM status: The message ID is 1136, and the message length is 18 words.

The following is a description of the input information of the TU-30:

Measurement position and speed initialization: message ID is 1200, message length is 27 words. Now take this example to introduce the specific meaning of each information word:

Words 1 to 4: information header;
5: Header check;
6: Serial number;
7: Initialization control;
8~16: GPS time and date;
17~18: Latitude;
19~20: longitude;
21~22: height;
23~24: Ground speed;
25: satellite orbit elevation angle;
26: rate of climb;
27: Data verification.

The following is other information on TU-30, and its specific content can be found in the relevant documents.
User data definition: message ID is 1210, message length is 20 words;
Map selection information data: the information ID is 1211, and the information length is 8 words;
Satellite elevation shielding control (0~±л/2): message ID is 1212, message length is 8 words;
Satellite selection: The message ID is 1213, and the message length is 10 words;
Differential GPS control: the message ID is 1214, and the message length is 9 words;
Cold start control: message ID is 1216, message length is 9 words;
Verification standard of positioning method: message ID is 1217, message length is 13 words;
Wireless type selection (active/passive): message ID is 1218, message length is 8 words;
User login height input: message ID is 1219, message length is 12 characters;
Application platform control (default, static, marine, land, air): message ID is 1220, message length is 8 words;
Serial communication parameter information: the information ID is 1221, and the information length is 15 words;
Navigation configuration information:
Information Protocol Control:…
The above related information is usually saved in the EEPROM of the module.

4 Portable Navigation System Built with Microcontroller

4.1 Hardware structure

In the design, the serial port 1 of the TU-30 module is usually connected to the serial port of the single-chip microcomputer. The connection between the module and the antenna can add a preamplifier. The antenna can be selected from Toshiba, or it can be customized. The LCD screen can be used to Display data such as latitude and longitude, time and altitude. The power supply uses 4 alkaline batteries, which are easy to replace.

MCU can choose MSP430 flash (F13X) series of Texas Instruments. MSP430 series is a 16-bit single-chip microcomputer, with fast processing speed, low power consumption and small size, suitable for use in portable instruments. At the same time, MSP430 MCU supports C language, which is easy to program.

The screen menu is displayed in Western characters, which can shorten the development time and reduce the cost, which is very suitable for civilian use; you can also choose a large-screen color dot-matrix LCD, which has a friendly and beautiful interface, but the software workload is large and the hardware cost is high. The keyboard can choose 3 touch keys, and all menu functions can be realized by software. Because the power supply of the MSP430 microcontroller is 3.3V and the power supply of the TU-30 is 5V, it needs to be processed with a DC-DC power conversion module. If a rechargeable battery is used, a charging circuit is also required. The interface principle between the GPS module and the microcontroller is shown in Figure 2.

4.2 Software Design

Figure 3 shows the software flow chart of the TU-30 GPS module. The writing of this software is mainly to set the serial communication, parameter Display and man-machine interface between GPS module and MCU. It mainly includes initialization, serial communication, data processing, fault prompt, display, keyboard processing, power management and other parts. The initialization includes the configuration of various registers in MSP430, the configuration of serial port related parameters (baud rate, mode) and the initialization of peripheral circuits (LCD, power supply and other equipment detection), etc.;
Serial communication includes data transmission, reception, verification, communication fault prompts, etc.; data processing mainly includes decoding, storage and data refresh of received data; fault prompts include equipment faults, communication faults, power failures, etc. Power management is mainly the power undervoltage prompt and the current power status display.

In addition, the antenna requirements of the GPS module should also be paid attention to during the design. There are the following two points:

(1) The antenna gain should be 30dB and the impedance should be 50Ω.
(2) Requirements for the wireless frequency signal environment, that is, the carrier frequency of the RF input L1 should be 10MHz, and the center point of the bandwidth should be 0dBW.

5 Conclusion

The application of GPS navigation equipment focuses on multi-satellite systems, long-distance monitoring and multi-function display. When using a multi-satellite system (such as a GNSS integrated navigation and positioning system) for navigation and positioning, more satellites can ensure the accuracy and reliability of real-time positioning.

In addition, GPS positioning is also limited by the GPS network. The control network established by the application of GPS satellite positioning technology is called the GPS network. To sum up, it can be roughly divided into two categories: one is the global or national high-precision GPS network. The distance between adjacent points in this type of GPS network is thousands of kilometers to tens of thousands of kilometers. Its main task is to serve as a global high-precision coordinate. A frame or national high-precision coordinate frame for scientific research work in global geodynamics and space science. The other type is regional GPS network, including city or mining area GPS network, GPS engineering network, etc. The distance between adjacent points in this type of network is several kilometers to tens of kilometers, and its main task is to directly contribute to the construction of the national economy. Serve.

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Classification of precision potentiometers and analysis of precautions for use

In life, you may have come into contact with various Electronic products, then you may not know some of its components, such as the precision potentiometer it may contain, then let Xiaobian lead you to learn about precision potentiometers . A precision potentiometer is a variable resistor that can adjust its own resistance value with high precision.

Classification of precision potentiometers

1. Precision potentiometer with switch, with switch device attached to the precision potentiometer. The switch is coaxial with the precision potentiometer. The movement and control methods of the switch are divided into two types: rotary type and push-pull type.

2. Solid precision potentiometer, which is made of quartz powder, graphite, carbon black, organic binder, etc., mixed and heated, pressed on the plastic substrate, and then heated and polymerized. Advantages: wide resistance design, good wear resistance, high resolution, high reliability, small size; Disadvantages: high noise, poor high temperature resistance. Solid precision potentiometers can be divided into logarithmic solid precision potentiometers, linear solid precision potentiometers and small solid precision potentiometers.

3. Metal film precision potentiometer, the resistor body is made of metal composite film, metal oxide film, metal alloy film, tantalum oxide film and other materials, which are deposited on the ceramic substrate by vacuum technology. Advantages: high resolution, lower sliding noise than carbon film precision potentiometers; Disadvantages: poor wear resistance, small resistance design.

4. Single-turn precision potentiometer and multi-turn precision potentiometer, the sliding arm of single-turn precision potentiometer can only rotate in the plane within 3600, and is generally used for volume control. Each time the shaft of a multi-turn precision potentiometer rotates, the contact point of the sliding arm changes only a small part of the resistance, and when the sliding arm moves from one extreme position to another extreme position, the shaft needs to change many times.

5. Wire-wound precision potentiometer, the resistance body is made of resistance wire wound on non-metallic plate or metal coated with insulating material. The advantages are: high precision, low noise, high power and good stability; the disadvantages are: poor high frequency characteristics. Wire-wound precision potentiometers are divided into straight-slip precision multi-turn wire-wound precision potentiometers, ordinary wire-wound precision potentiometers, precision multi-turn wire-wound precision potentiometers, ordinary multi-turn wire-wound precision potentiometers, and functional precision multi-turn wires.Precision potentiometer peripherals, etc.

6. The composition of carbon film precision potentiometer is a kind of precision potentiometer widely used at that time. The resistor body is made of quartz powder, carbon black, graphite, organic binder, etc., and is coated on bakelite or glass fiber board. Advantages: high resolution, wide resistance design; Disadvantages: large sliding noise, poor heat and humidity resistance. Carbon film precision potentiometers are divided into straight sliding carbon film precision potentiometers, ordinary carbon film precision potentiometers, small carbon film precision potentiometers with switches, dual-axis non-switch/switch precision potentiometers, stand-alone with switch/non-switch precision potentiometers , dual coaxial non-switch/with switch precision potentiometer, small precision composite carbon film precision potentiometer, push-pull switch composite carbon film precision potentiometer, precision multi-turn composite carbon film precision potentiometer, etc.

7. Double precision potentiometer and single precision potentiometer, double precision potentiometer usually install two precision potentiometers of the same specification on the same axis. When arranging the shaft, the sliding contacts of the two precision potentiometers change synchronously. There are also double precision potentiometers for asynchronous off-axis; a single precision potentiometer controls a group of precision potentiometers by an independent axis.

Features and applications of precision potentiometers

Precision potentiometer, also called precision adjustable potentiometer, is a variable resistor that can adjust its own resistance with higher precision. There are pointer type and non-pointer type, etc., and the adjustment circles are 5 circles, 10 circles, etc. The potentiometer has the same characteristics as the wire wound potentiometer, but also has the advantages of good linearity and fine adjustment. It can be widely used in the occasion of precise adjustment of resistance. The main parameters are resistance, tolerance and rated power. Widely used in volume control of speakers and receivers in electronic equipment.

Precautions for the use of precision potentiometers

1. When the precision potentiometer is placed and stored, it should not be squeezed and stored too tightly, so as not to cause the adjusting rod of the precision potentiometer to fall off. At the same time, attention should also be paid to its storage environment. It should not be stored in a place that is too humid, so as not to cause the internal components of the potentiometer to be damp.

2. In the use of the precision potentiometer, do not operate too hard relative to its adjustment strength, otherwise it may cause the adjustment rod of the precision potentiometer to be damaged or fall off. The adjustment of the potentiometer may cause the phenomenon of not closing or being stuck.

3. Do not mobilize the resistance value of the potentiometer casually, otherwise, the resistance value deviation will be too large in the use of the potentiometer, which will cause the circuit current to be too large and damage the potentiometer.

I believe that by reading the above content, everyone has a preliminary understanding of precision potentiometers, and I also hope that everyone can make a good summary in the learning process, so as to continuously improve their design level.

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